Moringa Research

1.

Authors:

Rizzo, Luigi
Lofrano, Giusy
Belgiorno, Vincenzo

Title:

Olive Mill and Winery Wastewaters Pre-Treatment by Coagulation with Chitosan

Publication:

SEPARATION SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

Abstract:

The pre-treatment of both winery wastewater (WW) and olive mill wastewater (OMW) by coagulation, using a natural organic coagulant, was investigated as a possible alternative to conventional metal based coagulants, in order to produce a potentially reusable organic sludge. Chitosan was chosen as a model natural organic coagulant and the coagulation process was optimized investigating different coagulant doses and pH values. In spite of the notably lower polluting load for the WW compared to the OMW, the efficiency of the chitosan coagulation was found to be high in terms of total suspended solids (81% and 80% for OMW and WW respectively) and turbidity (94% and 92% for OMW and WW respectively) removal for both wastewaters, but a notable difference was observed in terms of organic matter removal (32% and 73% in terms of COD for OMW and WW respectively). Taking into account that the best performances of the coagulation process by chitosan were achieved at the actual pH for OMW as well as no significant differences were observed for WW as the pH was changed, no chemicals addition is required to adjust pH.

URL:

http://www.informaworld.com/smpp/content~content=a930338236~db=all~jumptype=rss

 

2.

Authors:

Ogunsina, BS
Radha, C
Singh, RSG

Title:

Physicochemical and functional properties of full-fat and defatted Moringa oleifera kernel flour

Publication:

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF FOOD SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

Abstract:

Full-fat and defatted Moringa oleifera kernel flours were analysed for their functional properties. The effect of pH and NaCl concentrations on the functional properties of the flours was investigated following standard procedures. The protein content of full-fat and defatted flour was 36.18 and 62.76 g/100 g, respectively. The concentrations of other proximate constituents of the defatted flour were higher than those of the full-fat flour. Nitrogen solubility was lowest at pH of 4.0 and 9.0, respectively, with maximum solubility occurring at pH of 6.0. Defatting increased the water absorption and fat absorption capacities of Moringa oleifera kernel flour. The foaming capacity and foam stability of the defatted flour were 86.0% and 82.0 mL, whereas that of full-fat flour were 20.6% and 18.5 mL respectively. The defatted flour showed better emulsification (97.2 mL g(-1)) than full-fat flour (66.0 mL g(-1)). The least gelation concentration of the defatted and full-fat flours was 14% and 16% (w/v) respectively. Moringa oleifera kernel flour can be a valuable source of vegetable protein in fortified food products formulation.

URL:

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111.j.1365-2621.2010.02423.x/abstract

3.

Authors:

Araujo, Cleide S. T.
Alves, Vanessa N.
Rezende, Helen C.
Almeida, Ione L. S.
de Assuncao, Rosana M. N.
Tarley, Cesar R. T.
Segatelli, Mariana G.
Title:

Characterization and use of Moringa oleifera seeds as biosorbent for removing metal ions from aqueous effluents

Publication:

WATER SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

Abstract:

Moringa oleifera seeds were investigated as a biosorbent for removing metal ions from aqueous effluents. The morphological characteristics as well as the chemical composition of M. oleifera seeds were evaluated using Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) Spectroscopy, Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The FT-IR spectra showed the presence of lipids and protein components. Scanning electron micrographs showed that Moringa seeds have an adequate morphological profile for the retention of metal ions. The results suggest that M. oleifera seeds have potential application in Cd(II), Pb(II), Co(II), Cu(II) and Ag(I) decontamination from aqueous effluents.

URL:

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21045350

 

4.

Authors:

Wang, Shan
Yu, Demei
Huang, Yi
Guo, Jinchan

Title:

The Adsorption of Sulphonated Azo-Dyes Methyl Orange and Xylenol Orange by Coagulation on Hollow Chitosan Microsphere

Publication:

JOURNAL OF APPLIED POLYMER SCIENCE

Abstract:

Chitosan (CS) can be used as adsorbent in the treatment of effluents from the textile industry, especially for negatively charged dyes, due to its cationic polyelectrolyte nature. In this work, the adsorption of a model dye, methyl orange, xylenol orange on hollow CS microsphere is analyzed. Adsorption of methyl orange, xylenol orange onto cross-linked CS is realized by means of analysis of pH influence, agitation time, and initial concentration of the dye. The results obtained from the experiment shows that the adsorption capacities of the two dye-hollow CS microsphere systems are higher than those stated in other literature using CS particles. The difference in the degree of adsorption may also be attributed to the size and chemical structure of the dye molecule. The results have demonstrated that monovalent and smaller dye molecular sizes have superior capacities due to the increase in dye/CS surface ratio in the system and deeper penetration of dye molecules into the internal pore structure of hollow CS microsphere.

URL:

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/1002/app.32919/abstract

 

5.

Authors:

Gupta, Anamika
Gautam, Manish K.
Singh, Rahul K.
Kumar, M. Vijay
Rao, Ch V.
Goel, R. K.
Anupurba, Shampa

Title:

Immunomodulatory effect of Moringa oleifera Lam extract on cyclophosphamide induced toxicity in mice

Publication:

INDIAN JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL BIOLOGY

Abstract:

Immunomodulatory effect of ethanolic extract (50%) of M oleifera leaves (MOE) has been studied in normal and immunosuppressed mice models Different doses of MOE 1 e 125 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight of mice were administered orally for 15 days Cyclophosphamide at a dose of 30 mg / kg body weight was administered orally for the next 3 days On day 16 and 19 hematological parameters like white blood cell (WBC) count, red blood cell (RBC) count haemoglobin level (Hb) percent neutrophils and organ weight were recorded Effect of MOE on phagocytic activity of mice macrophages was determined by carbon clearance test MOE showed significant dose dependent increase in WBC percent neutrophils weight of thymus and spleen along with phagocytic Index in normal and immunosuppressed mice The results indicate that MOE significantly reduced cyclophosphamide Induced immunosuppression by stimulating both cellular and humoral immunity.

URL:

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21117458

 

6.

Authors:

Pritchard, M.
Craven, T.
Mkandawire, T.
Edmondson, A. S.
O’Neill, J. G.

Title:

A study of the parameters affecting the effectiveness of Moringa oleifera in drinking water purification

Publication:

PHYSICS AND CHEMISTRY OF THE EARTH

Abstract:

The powder obtained from the seeds of the Moringa oleifera tree has been shown to be an effective primary coagulant for water treatment. When the seeds are dried, dehusked, crushed and added to water, the powder acts as a coagulant binding colloidal particles and bacteria to form agglomerated particles (flocs), which settle allowing the clarified supernatant to be poured off. Very little research has been undertaken on the parameters affecting the effectiveness of M. oleifera, especially in Malawi, for purification of drinking water and there is a great need for further testing in this area. Conclusive data needs to be compiled to demonstrate the effects of various water parameters have on the efficiency of the seeds. A parametric study was undertaken at Leeds Metropolitan University, UK, with the aim to establish the most appropriate dosing method: the optimum dosage for removal of turbidity; the influence of pH and temperature; together with the shelf life of the M. oleifera seeds. The study revealed that the most suitable dosing method was to mix the powder into a concentrated paste, hence forming a stock suspension. The optimum M. oleifera dose, for turbidity values between 40 and 200 NTU, ranged between 30 and 55 mg/l. With turbidity set at 130 NTU and a M. oleifera dose within the optimum range at 50 mg/l, pH levels were varied between 4 and 9. It was discovered that the coagulant performance was not too sensitive to pH fluctuations when conditions were within the optimum range. The most efficient coagulation, determined by the greatest reduction in turbidity, occurred at pH 6.5. Alkaline conditions were overall more favourable than acidic conditions; pH 9 had an efficiency of 65% of optimum, whilst at pH 5 the efficiency dropped to around 55%. The efficiency further dropped at pH 4, where the powder only produced results of around 10% of optimum conditions. A temperature range of 4-60 degrees C was studied in this research. Colder waters (<15 degrees C) were found to hinder the effectiveness of the coagulation process. The higher the temperature the more effective was the coagulation. It was also found that the age of the seeds, up to 18 months, did not have any noticeable effect on dose level and percentage reduction in turbidity, although at 18 months the seeds had a narrower dosing range to produce near-optimum reduction. Seeds aged 24 months showed a significant decline in coagulant efficiency.

URL:

http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010PCE….35..791P

 

7.

Authors:

Pritchard, M.
Craven, T.
Mkandawire, T.
Edmondson, A. S.
O’Neill, J. G.

Title:

A comparison between Moringa oleifera and chemical coagulants in the purification of drinking water – An alternative sustainable solution for developing countries

Publication:

PHYSICS AND CHEMISTRY OF THE EARTH

Abstract:

A research project was commissioned to investigate the performance of Moringa oleifera compared with that of aluminium sulphate (Al-2(SO4)(3)) and ferric sulphate (Fe-2(SO4)(3)), termed alum and ferric respectively. A series of jar tests was undertaken using model water, different raw water sources and hybrid water containing a mixture of both of these types of water. The model water consisted of deionised water spiked with Escherichia colt (E. coil) at 10(4) per 100 ml and turbidity (146 NTU) artificially created by kaolin. Results showed that M. oleifera removed 84% turbidity and 88% E. coil, whereas alum removed greater than 99% turbidity and E. coli. Low turbidity river water (<5 NTU), with an E. coli count of 605 colony forming units (cfu)/100 ml was treated with M. oleifera and ferric. Results showed an 82% and 94% reduction in E. coil for M. oleifera and ferric respectively. Tests on turbid river water of 45 NTU, with an E. colt count of 2650 cfu/100 ml, showed a removal of turbidity of 76% and E. coil reduction of 93% with M. oleifera. The equivalent reductions for alum were 91% and 98% respectively. Highly coloured reservoir water was also spiked with E. colt (10(4) cfu/100 ml) and turbidity (160 NTU) artificially created by kaolin: termed hybrid water. Under these conditions M. oleifera removed 83% colour, 97% turbidity and reduced E. coli by 66%. Corresponding removal values for alum were 88% colour, 99% turbidity and 89% E. coil, and for ferric were 93% colour, 98% turbidity and 86% E. colt. Tests on model water, using a secondary treatment stage sand filter showed maximum turbidity removal of 97% and maximum E. coil reduction of 98% using M. oleifera, compared with 100% turbidity and 97% E. coil for alum. Although not as effective as alum or ferric, M. oleifera showed sufficient removal capability to encourage its use for treatment of turbid waters in developing countries.

URL:

http://www.citeulike.org/article/7598423

8.

Authors:

Ahmed, T.
Kanwal, R.
Hassan, M.
Ayub, N.
Scholz, M.
McMinn, W.

Title:

Coagulation and disinfection in water treatment using Moringa

Publication

PROCEEDINGS OF THE INSTITUTION OF CIVIL ENGINEERS-WATER MANAGEMENT

Abstract:

A low-cost technology for drinking water purification involving plant extracts that are harmful to potentially pathogenic bacteria was developed. The methanolic and aqueous extracts of different parts of the Moringa oleifera vegetable tree were examined for their antibacterial and coagulation properties. The extracts from buds and shoots showed more antibacterial activities against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus var. mycoides, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumonia and Shigella flexneri at 37 degrees C than those obtained from leaves and seeds. The lowest minimum inhibitory concentrations and minimum bactericidal concentrations were observed for buds and shoots, and not for seeds and leaves. The seeds were associated with higher coagulation activity in comparison with other parts of the plant and alum. These results suggest that bud and seed extracts can be used for water treatment, avoiding the risk of contamination by water-borne pathogens and promoting an indigenous solution to disease control and environmental management.

URL:

Http://www.icevirtuallibrary.com/content/article/10.1680/wama.9000080

9.

Authors:

Sharma, Ratnesh K.
Chatterji, Sanjukta
Rai, Devendra K.
Mehta, Shikha
Rai, Prashant K.
Singh, Rakesh K.
Watal, Geeta
Sharma, Bechan

Title:

Antioxidant activities and phenolic contents of the aqueous extracts of some Indian medicinal plants

Publication:

JOURNAL OF MEDICINAL PLANTS RESEARCH

Abstract:

Antioxidants protect the body against oxidative stress by neutralizing free radicals. Plants contain rich amount of polyphenols which are very potent natural antioxidants. The present study was designed to evaluate the relative contribution of different polyphenols such as total phenolics, flavonoids and flavonol contents and their antioxidants activities. For this purpose the total phenolics, flavonoids and flavonol contents of some medicinal plants were determined in the aqueous extracts of leaves of Trichosenthes dioica, fruits of Moringa olifera and Ficus bengalensis as well as seeds of Emblica officinalis. Total antioxidant activity of these extracts was monitored by Free Radical Absorbing Power (FRAP) assay. In this paper, those parts of the plants are used for the analysis of aforesaid parameters which are normally overlooked. The total phenolic content of T. dioica leaves was about two times more than that obtained from the fruits and seeds of M. olifera and E. officinalis, respectively. However, the aerial roots of F. bengalensis registered presence of least phenolic content. The aqueous preparation from E. officinalis exhibited total flavonoid content twice as high as that of the other three plants. The extract from seeds of E. officinalis was found to contain highest antioxidant activity as compared to the preparations from other plants. The high antioxidant activity and flavonoids contents in E. officinalis seeds indicated that it could be exploited as an ingredient in developing a potential antioxidant supplement.

URL:

http://www.academicjournals.org/jmpr/PDF/pdf2009/Nov/Sharma%20et%20al.pdf

 

10.

Authors:

Oluduro, O. A.
Aderiye, B. I.
Connolly, J. D.
Akintayo, E. T.
Famurewa, O.

Title:

Characterization and Antimicrobial Activity of 4-(beta-D-Glucopyranosyl-1 -> 4-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyloxy)-benzyl thiocarboxamide; a Novel Bioactive Compound from Moringa oleifera Seed Extract

Publication:

FOLIA MICROBIOLOGICA

Abstract:

Antimicrobial activity of crude seed extract of Moringa oleifera was investigated by thin layer chromatography bioassay against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Cladosporium cladosporioides, and Penicillium sclerotigenum; most of them were prominently inhibited by an isolate with R (F) 0.92-0.96. Characterization and identification of the extract revealed the occurrence of three bioactive compounds: 4-(alpha-l-rhamnopyranosyloxy)benzyl isothiocyanate, methyl N-4-(alpha-l-rhamnopyranosyloxy) benzyl carbamate (both known compounds), and 4-(beta-d-glucopyranosyl-1 -> 4-alpha-l-rhamnopyranosyloxy)-benzyl thiocarboxamide, existence of which in any Moringa spp. or plant is reported for the first time. The UV spectrum of the novel compound showed maximum absorption at 273 and 225 nm in MeOH while the IR spectrum revealed several characteristic bands at 3100, 2900, 1700, 1500, 1300, 1100 and 1000 cm(-1). The H-1-NMR showed signals at 1.2 and 3.77 ppm and the C-13-NMR presented signals at 155, 122, 91.7 and 98.4 ppm. All the compounds at 5 mg/L had very high bactericidal activity against some of test pathogens even at contact period 1-2 h. 4-(beta-d-Glucopyranosyl-1 -> 4-alpha-l-rhamnopyranosyloxy)benzyl thiocarboxamide was the most potent, with 99.2 % inhibition toward Shigella dysenteriae and 100 % toward Bacillus cereus, E. coli and Salmonella typhi within 4 h of contact.

URL:

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20941575

11.

Authors:

Oluduro, O. A.
Aderiye, B. I.
Connolly, J. D.
Akintayo, E. T.
Famurewa, O.

Title:

Characterization and Antimicrobial Activity of 4-(beta-D-Glucopyranosyl-1 -> 4-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyloxy)-benzyl thiocarboxamide; a Novel Bioactive Compound from Moringa oleifera Seed Extract

Publication:

FOLIA MICROBIOLOGICA

Abstract:

Antimicrobial activity of crude seed extract of Moringa oleifera was investigated by thin layer chromatography bioassay against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Cladosporium cladosporioides, and Penicillium sclerotigenum; most of them were prominently inhibited by an isolate with R (F) 0.92-0.96. Characterization and identification of the extract revealed the occurrence of three bioactive compounds: 4-(alpha-l-rhamnopyranosyloxy)benzyl isothiocyanate, methyl N-4-(alpha-l-rhamnopyranosyloxy) benzyl carbamate (both known compounds), and 4-(beta-d-glucopyranosyl-1 -> 4-alpha-l-rhamnopyranosyloxy)-benzyl thiocarboxamide, existence of which in any Moringa spp. or plant is reported for the first time. The UV spectrum of the novel compound showed maximum absorption at 273 and 225 nm in MeOH while the IR spectrum revealed several characteristic bands at 3100, 2900, 1700, 1500, 1300, 1100 and 1000 cm(-1). The H-1-NMR showed signals at 1.2 and 3.77 ppm and the C-13-NMR presented signals at 155, 122, 91.7 and 98.4 ppm. All the compounds at 5 mg/L had very high bactericidal activity against some of test pathogens even at contact period 1-2 h. 4-(beta-d-Glucopyranosyl-1 -> 4-alpha-l-rhamnopyranosyloxy)benzyl thiocarboxamide was the most potent, with 99.2 % inhibition toward Shigella dysenteriae and 100 % toward Bacillus cereus, E. coli and Salmonella typhi within 4 h of contact.

URL:

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20941575

 

12.

Authors:

Sasikala, V.
Rooban, B. N.
Priya, S. G. Siva
Sahasranamam, V.
Abraham, Annie

Title:

Moringa oleifera Prevents Selenite-Induced Cataractogenesis in Rat Pups

Publication:

JOURNAL OF OCULAR PHARMACOLOGY AND THERAPEUTICS

Abstract:

Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effects of the flavonoid fraction of Moringa oleifera leaves (FMO) on selenite cataract in vivo.
Methods: Rat pups of Sprague-Dawley strain initially weighing 10-12 g on day 8 were used for the study and grouped as control (G I), selenite induced (G II), and FMO treated (G III). The rat pups in G II and G III received a single subcutaneous injection of sodium selenite (4 mu g/g body weight) on day 10 and G III was administered with FMO (2.5 mu g/g body weight) from day 8 to 15. Cataract was visualized from day 16. The development of cataract was assessed and rat lenses were analyzed for the activities of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase and catalase), generation of reactive oxygen species, reduced glutathione, protein oxidation, and lipid peroxidation. FMO was subjected to in vitro antioxidant assays (2,2-diphenyl-picrylhydrazyl and superoxide scavenging assays).
Results: The total phenolic content of FMO was 4.4 mg of catechin equivalent/g dried plant material. The extract showed remarkable activity on 2,2-diphenyl-picrylhydrazyl (IC50 36 mu g/mL) and in superoxide radical (IC50 33.81 mu g/mL) scavenging assays. FMO effectively prevented the morphological changes and oxidative damage in lens. FMO maintained the activities of antioxidant enzymes and sulfhydryl content and prevented reactive oxygen species generation and lipid peroxidation.
Conclusions: FMO was effective in preventing cataractogenesis in selenite model by enhancing the activities of antioxidant enzyme, reducing the intensity of lipid peroxidation, and inhibiting free radical generation.

URL:

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20879807

 

13.

Authors:

Dachana, K. B.
Rajiv, Jyotsna
Indrani, D.
Prakash, Jamuna

Title:

EFFECT OF DRIED MORINGA (MORINGA OLEIFERA LAM) LEAVES ON RHEOLOGICAL, MICROSTRUCTURAL, NUTRITIONAL, TEXTURAL AND ORGANOLEPTIC CHARACTERISTICS OF COOKIES

Publication:

JOURNAL OF FOOD QUALITY

Abstract:

Effect of replacement of wheat flour with 5, 10 and 15% dried moringa leaves (Moringa oleifera Lam) powder (DML) on the rheological, microstructural, nutritional and quality characteristics of cookies was studied. Incorporation of increasing amount of DML from 0 to 15% increased farinograph water absorption and decreased dough stability, amylograph pasting temperature and peak viscosity. Use of DML increased dough hardness and decreased cohesiveness and spread ratio of cookies. Sensory evaluation showed that cookies incorporated with 10% DML powder were acceptable. Microstructure studies showed calcium oxalate crystals in both DML powder and cookies with DML. The starch granules appeared wrapped in cookies with 10 and 15% DML. Protein, iron, calcium, beta-carotene and dietary fiber contents increased with increasing amount of DML from 0 to 15%. The results showed the possibility of utilizing DML to improve the nutritional characteristics of cookies.

URL:

http://zariba.ingenta.com/content/bsc/jfq/2010/00000033/00000005/art00008;jsessionid=3cdb81hicn2m2.alice

 

 

14.

Authors:

Kafuku, Gerald
Lam, Man Kee
Kansedo, Jibrail
Lee, Keat Teong
Mbarawa, Makame

Title:

Heterogeneous catalyzed biodiesel production from Moringa oleifera oil

Publication:

FUEL PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY

Abstract:

In this study, biodiesel was produced from Moringa oleifera oil using sulfated tin oxide enhanced with SiO2 (SO42-/SnO2-SiO2) as super acid solid catalyst. The experimental design was done using design of experiment (DoE), specifically, response surface methodology based on three-variable central composite design (CCD) with alpha (alpha) = 2. The reaction parameters studied were reaction temperature (60 degrees C to 180 degrees C), reaction period (1 h to 3 h) and methanol to oil ratio (1:6 to 1:24). It was observed that the yield up to 84 wt.% of Moringa oleifera methyl esters can be obtained with reaction conditions of 150 degrees C temperature, 150 min reaction time and 1:19.5 methanol to oil ratio, while catalyst concentration and agitation speed are kept at 3 wt.% and 350-360 rpm respectively. Therefore this study presents the possibility of converting a relatively new oil feedstock, Moringa oleifera oil to biodiesel and thus reducing the world’s dependency on existing edible oil as biodiesel feedstock.

URL:

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0378382010001852

 

15.

Authors:

Madrona, Grasiele Scaramal
Serpelloni, Geovanna Bordini
Salcedo Vieira, Angelica Marquetotti
Nishi, Leticia
Cardoso, Karina Cordeiro
Bergamasco, Rosangela

Title:

Study of the Effect of Saline Solution on the Extraction of the Moringa oleifera Seed’s Active Component for Water Treatment

Publication:

WATER AIR AND SOIL POLLUTION

Abstract:

Several coagulants/flocculants have been studied in order to remove the color and turbidity of raw water, employing natural ones demonstrated advantages in relation to chemicals. Moringa oleifera Lam is a natural polymer that has been gaining prominence in water treatment. It acts as a clarifying agent, providing a cationic protein that destabilizes the particles contained in a liquid medium. The main objective of the present work is to study the efficiency in terms of removing color and turbidity of raw water in order to obtain drinking water. For this purpose, different coagulant solutions were obtained utilizing three solutions of KCl in different concentrations (0.01, 0.1, and 1 M) and pure water combined with M. oleifera Lam seed. Each coagulant solution obtained was studied with concentrations ranging from 50 to 600 ppm of Moringa in solution. The pH was varied (4.0, 6.0, and 8.0) with 25% and 50% sodium hydroxide solution (NaOH) and hydrochloric acid (HCl), respectively. The tests were conducted with the “Jar Test Device” and the efficiency of the process was evaluated regarding the reduction of color and turbidity. The best results were found employing the coagulant solutions extracted with 1 M salt solution, pH 8.0, and different concentrations of coagulant solution. It is important to explain that the best results were in various concentration ranges, as the concentration of protein in solution becomes higher, the greater is its power as a coagulant. The lowest content of protein was found in the solution extracted with water, which consequently had the lowest values of color and turbidity removal.

URL:

http://www.springerlink.com/content/nj31703160628687/

 

16.

Authors:

Tanica, M.
da Silva, G.
Lanzana, F.
Agostinho, A.
Gomes, E.
Serrano, R.
Silva, O.

Title:

The application of micrographic parameters in the quality control of Moringa oleifera leaf

Publication:

PLANTA MEDICA

Abstract:

Not available

URL:

No URL found

17.

Authors:

Ghebremichael, K.
Gebremedhin, N.
Amy, G.

Title:

Performance of Moringa oliefera as a biosorbent for chromium removal

Publication:

WATER SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

Abstract:

This study investigated adsorption of chromium on to a bio-adsorbent, Moringa oleifera seed. Different by-products of the seed processing were used as adsorbents. These include: the Whole Seed Powder (WSP), the Residue after Coagulant Extraction (RaCE) and an Activated Carbon (AC) prepared from the seed husk. Adsorption studies for the removal of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) were carried out in batch experiments and the effects of adsorbent dosage, contact time, pH and initial chromium concentration were analysed. Experimental results showed that maximum removal of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) was observed at pH 7 and pH 2, respectively. The percentage removals of Cr(III) by WSP, RaCE and AC were: 97, 94 and 99.9%, respectively. And the percentage removals of Cr(VI) by RaCE and AC were 47 and 83.2%, respectively. RaCE showed similar adsorption capacity to the WSP, which indicates that it is possible to extract a coagulant and use the waste product for adsorption. By using the RaCE, residual dissolved organic carbon in the treated water was significantly reduced compared to using the WSP. These results indicate that biomaterials can be considered as potential adsorbents for heavy metals removal from water or wastewater systems.

URL:

http://www.environmental-expert.com/articles/performance-of-moringa-oliefera-as-a-biosorbent-for-chromium-removal-192843

 

18.

Authors:

Sreelatha, S
Padma, PR

Title:

Protective Mechanisms of Moringa oleifera against CCl4-Induced Oxidative Stress in Precision-Cut Liver Slices

Publication:

FORSCHENDE KOMPLEMENTARMEDIZIN

Abstract:

Objective: The present study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of Moringa oleifera leaves against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-treated liver slices in vitro. Material and Methods: The study evaluated the antioxidant properties of Moringa oleifera leaves against CCl4-induced oxidative damage in liver slices. Results: CCl4 treatment significantly decreased the activities of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and glutathione S-transferase and caused decreased glutathione content and increased the thiobarbituric acid-reacting substances (TBARS). Treatment with Moringa oleifera extract increased the activities of antioxidant enzymes and glutathione content and reduced the levels of TBARS significantly. Observed reduction in the level of lipid peroxides showed a decreased tendency of peroxidative damage. Discussion and Conclusion: We conclude that, under these experimental conditions, the leaf extracts effectively suppress CCl4-induced oxidative stress. Our findings provide evidence to demonstrate that the possible mechanism of this activity may be due to the strong antioxidant property of the leaves.

URL:

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20829596

19.

Authors:

Reddy, D. Harikishore Kumar
Harinath, Y.
Seshaiah, K.
Reddy, A. V. R.

Title:

Biosorption of Pb(II) from aqueous solutions using chemically modified Moringa oleifera tree leaves

Publication:

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING JOURNAL

Abstract:

Moringa oleifera leaves (MOL); an agro-waste material has been used as a precursor to prepare a new biosorbent. The leaves were washed with base and citric acid, and obtained new chemically modified MOL biosorbent (CAMOL) for sequestration of Pb(II) from aqueous solution. The biosorbent was characterized by SEM, FTIR spectral and elemental analyses. The effect of experimental parameters such as pH, dose, initial concentration, contact time and temperature on the biosorption was studied. The kinetic data were analyzed using three adsorption kinetic models: the pseudo-first and second-order kinetics and intraparticle diffusion. The equilibrium data were analyzed using Langmuir, Freundlich. Dubinin-Radushkevick and Temkin isotherm models. Langmuir model provided the best correlation with biosorption capacity of 209.54 mg g(-1) at 313 K. The thermodynamic properties, Delta G degrees, Delta H degrees and Delta S degrees showed that biosorption of Pb(II) onto CAMOL was spontaneous, endothermic and feasible in the temperature range of 293-313 K. Desorption experiments showed feasibility of regeneration of the biosorbent for further use after treating with dilute HCl. The presence of other common metal ions like Na+, K+, Ca2+ and Mg2+ did not affect the biosorption of lead. Investigations carried out proved that CAMOL is a biosorbent with good potential for removal of lead from the aqueous media.

URL:

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1385894710005334

 

20.

Authors:

Cheenpracha, Sarot
Park, Eun-Jung
Yoshida, Wesley Y.
Barit, Chaz
Wall, Marisa
Pezzuto, John M.
Chang, Leng Chee

Title:

Potential anti-inflammatory phenolic glycosides from the medicinal plant Moringa oleifera fruits

Publication:

BIOORGANIC & MEDICINAL CHEMISTRY

Abstract:

Bioassay-guided isolation and purification of the ethyl acetate extract of Moringa oleifera fruits yielded three new phenolic glycosides; 4-[(2′-O-acetyl-alpha-L-rhamnosyloxy) benzyl] isothiocyanate (1), 4-[(3′-Oacetyl-alpha-L-rhamnosyloxy) benzyl] isothiocyanate (2), and S-methyl-N-{4-[(alpha-L-rhamnosyloxy) benzyl]}thiocarbamate (3), together with five known phenolic glycosides (4-8). The structures of the new metabolites were determined on the basis of spectroscopic analyses including 1D- and 2D-NMR and mass spectrometry. The anti-inflammatory activity of isolated compounds was investigated with the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced murine macrophage RAW 264.7 cell line. It was found that 4-[(2′-O-acetyl-alpha-L-rhamnosyloxy) benzyl] isothiocyanate (1) possessed potent NO-inhibitory activity with an IC50 value of 1.67 mu M, followed by 2 (IC50 = 2.66 mu M), 4 (IC50 = 2.71 mu M), and 5 (IC50 = 14.4 mu M), respectively. Western blots demonstrated these compounds reduced LPS-mediated iNOS expression. In the concentration range of the IC50 values, no significant cytotoxicity was noted. Structure-activity relationships following NO-release indicated: (1) the isothiocyanate group was essential for activity, (2) acetylation of the isothiocyanate derivatives at C-2′ or at C-3′ of rhamnose led to higher activity, (3) un-acetylated isothiocyanate derivatives displayed eight times less activity than the acetylated derivatives, and (4) acetylation of the thiocarbamate derivatives enhanced activity. These data indicate compounds 1, 2, 4 and 5 are responsible for the reported NO-inhibitory effect of Moringa oleifera fruits, and further studies are warranted.

URL:

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0968089610002713

 

21.

Authors:

Yin, Chun-Yang

Title:

Emerging usage of plant-based coagulants for water and wastewater treatment

Publication:

PROCESS BIOCHEMISTRY

Abstract:

A review of plant-based coagulant sources, processes, effectiveness and relevant coagulating mechanisms for treatment of water and wastewater is presented. These coagulants are, in general, used as point-of-use technology in less-developed communities since they are relatively cost-effective compared to chemical coagulants, can be easily processed in usable form and biodegradable. These natural coagulants, when used for treatment of waters with low-to-medium turbidity range (50-500 NTU), are comparable to their chemical counterparts in terms of treatment efficiency. Their application for industrial wastewater treatment is still at their infancy, though they are technically promising as coagulant for dyeing effluent as afforded by Yoshida intermolecular interactions. These natural coagulants function by means of adsorption mechanism followed by charge neutralization or polymeric bridging effect. Frequently studied plant-based coagulants include nirmali seeds (Strychnos potatorum), Moringa oleifera, tannin and cactus. Utilization of these coagulants represents important progress in sustainable environmental technology as they are renewable resources and their application is directly related to the improvement of quality of life for underdeveloped communities.

URL:

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1359511310002114 

22.

Authors:

da Silva, Jhosianna P. V.
Serra, Tatiana M.
Gossmann, Marcelo
Wolf, Carlos R.
Meneghetti, Mario R.
Meneghetti, Simoni M. P.

Title:

Moringa oleifera oil: Studies of characterization and biodiesel production

Publication:

BIOMASS & BIOENERGY

Abstract:

This work describes studies with the seeds of Moringa oleifera (MO), obtained in the northeast of Brazil, evaluating some properties and chemical composition of the oil, as well any potential application in biodiesel production. The studied physicochemical properties of the MO biodiesel, suggest that this material may be used as fuel in diesel engines, mainly as a mixture to petrodiesel.

URL:

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0961953410001200 

23.

Authors:

Araujo, Cleide S. T.
Melo, Edmar I.
Alves, Vanessa N.
Coelho, Nivia M. M.

Title:

Moringa oleifera Lam. Seeds as a Natural Solid Adsorbent for Removal of Ag-I in Aqueous Solutions

Publication:

JOURNAL OF THE BRAZILIAN CHEMICAL SOCIETY

Abstract:

This work describes the sorption potential of Moringa oleifera seeds for the decontamination of Ag-I in aqueous solutions. Infrared spectroscopy was used for elucidating possible functional groups responsible for uptaking Ag-I. Sorption studies using Ag-I standard solutions were carried out in batch experiments as functions of adsorbent mass, extraction time, particle size and pH. The Ag-I was quantified before and after the removal experiments using flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Furthermore, based on adsorption studies and adsorption isotherms applied to the Langmuir model, it was possible to verify that M. oleifera seeds present a high adsorption capacity. The optimum conditions were: 2.0 g of adsorbent with particle size of 75-500 mu m, 100 mL of 25.0 mg L-1 Ag-I, extraction time of 20 min and pH at 6.5. The results show that Moringa oleifera seeds can be used for removing Ag-I in aqueous solutions.

URL:

http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?pid=S0103-50532010000900019&script=sci_arttext

 24.

Authors:

Wu, Jiang-Chong
Yang, Jing
Gu, Zhi-Jian
Zhang, Yan-Ping

Title:

Isolation and Characterization of Twenty Polymorphic Microsatellite Loci for Moringa oleifera (Moringaceae)

Publication:

HORTSCIENCE

Abstract:

By using a modified biotin-streptavidin capturing method, a total of 20 polymorphic microsatellite markers were developed from Moringa oleifera Lam. (Moringaceae), a useful multipurpose tree. Twenty-four domesticated individuals, with germplasms of Indiaand Myanmar, were used to screen polymorphism of these 20 microsatellite markers. The number of alleles per locus ranged from two to six. The expected and observed heterozygosity varied from 0.3608 to 0.7606 and from 0.0000 to 0.8750, respectively. Seven loci were significantly deviated from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The availability of these microsatellite primers would provide a powerful tool for aspects of detailed population genetic studies of M. oleifera.

URL:

http://sourcedb.cas.cn/sourcedb_kib_cas/yw/papers/201010/t20101009_2980006.html

 25.

Authors:

Cajuday, Lilibeth A.
Pocsidio, Glorina L.

Title:

Effects of Moringa oleifera Lam. (Moringaceae) on the reproduction of male mice (Mus musculus)

Publication:

JOURNAL OF MEDICINAL PLANTS RESEARCH

Abstract:

The effects of Moringa oleifera Lam. on the reproduction in male mice were studied. Twenty four male ICR mice divided equally into four groups were administered with the hexane extract of the leaves of M. oleifera by gavage at doses of 0.5, 5 and 50 mg/30 g BW daily for 21 days. The vehicle corn oil was used as control. Data on body weights, weights of reproductive organs, diameter of seminiferous tubule, stage of maturity, and levels of serum luteinizing hormone and follicle stimulating hormone were obtained and analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey’s test. Significant findings were: increased weights of testis (at medium and high doses); epididymis (at all doses); seminal vesicle (at the high dose) and also increased seminiferous tubule diameter (at all doses); increased thickness of epididymal wall (at medium and high doses); higher score for lumen formation (at the high dose) and epididymal maturity (at all doses). No significant effects on the level of the 2 hormones were obtained.

URL:

http://www.academicjournals.org/jmpr/PDF/pdf2010/18June/Cajuday%20and%20Pocsidio.pdf

 26.

Authors:

Kafuku, Gerald
Mbarawa, Makame

Title:

Effects of Biodiesel Blending with Fossil Fuel on Flow Properties of Biodiesel Produced From Non-Edible Oils

Publication:

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF GREEN ENERGY

Abstract:

The cold flow properties of biodiesel from various feedstocks have been a challenge in adapting the use of biodiesel in diesel engines, especially in cold regions. The use of cold flow improvers for biodiesel helps using biodiesel in a wide range of temperature conditions. In this study, cold flow properties of biodiesel produced from non-edible feedstocks such as croton megalocarpus, jatropha curcas, and moringa oleifera oils were investigated. The evaluated properties were kinematic viscosity, cloud point, and pour point. Different transesterification methods were used to produce biodiesel from these feedstocks due to their difference in the level of free fatty acids (FFA). Croton and moringa oils were found with FFA levels of 1.68% and 0.6%, respectively; thus, one-step transesterification method was chosen for their methyl esters conversion. Jatropha oil was found with FFA level of 8.14% making a two-step acid-base transesterification method to be employed for its methyl esters conversion. The effect of water in the two-step acid-base transesterification process was also investigated for jatropha biodiesel production. The presence of water after acid pretreatment process of jatropha oil was found to reduce both product and methyl esters yield, the best option was to preheat the pretreated jatropha oil to 110 degrees C for 10 min to evaporate water that remain during gravity separation of methanol-water phase. Blending of biodiesels from these three feedstocks with kerosene improved their cold flow properties. The reduction of cloud and pour points from -4 degrees C and -9 degrees C to -11 degrees C and -15 degrees C, respectively, of croton biodiesel was observed when blended with 20% kerosene while cloud and pour points reduction from 1 degrees C and -2 degrees C to -7 degrees C and -12 degrees C, respectively, of jatropha biodiesel was observed when blended with 20% kerosene. Similarly, the reduction of cloud and pour points from 10 degrees C and 3 degrees C to -3 degrees C and -7 degrees C, respectively, of moringa biodiesel was observed when blended with 20% kerosene.

URL:

http://www.informaworld.com/smpp/content~content=a924570024~db=all~jumptype=rss

 27.

Authors:

Paterniani, Jose E. S.
Ribeiro, Tulio A. P.
Mantovani, Marcia C.
Sant’anna, Marcia R.

Title:

Water treatment by sedimentation and slow fabric filtration using Moringa oleifera seeds

Publication:

AFRICAN JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH

Abstract:

The main objective of this work was to evaluate the suitability and efficiency of a natural coagulant from Moringa oleifera seeds in treating high turbidity water in the processes of slow direct filtration and sedimentation. In developing countries such as Brazil, the technologies for water treatment shall enable people living in potable-water deficient regions to purify water in easy and self-sustainable ways and at a low cost as well. Within this proposition, a potential use of M. oleifera has been suggested in several previous studies. In this work, a flocculation device made of pet bottles plus three filters consisting of pet bottles and non-woven synthetic fabric was used in the water treatment by slow direct filtration. The water output to the filters was of approximately 4 m(3)m-(2) per day. The water treatment by sedimentation comprised a flocculation unit made of pet bottles and a sedimentation tank. Synthetic bentonite-water was used as the untreated water, which was chosen due to its proper qualitative characteristics for the experiments. The data demonstrated that the M. oleifera coagulant was efficient in the treatment of water with high turbidity (50 to 100 NTU) in the tested systems of slow filtration through synthetic non-woven fabric and of sedimentation.

URL:

http://www.academicjournals.org/ajar/abstracts/abstracts/abstract2010/4%20Jun/Paterniani%20et%20al.htm

 28.

Authors:

Bellostas, Natalia
Sorensen, Jens Christian
Nikiema, Albert
Sorensen, Hilmer
Pasternak, Dov
Kumar, Sanjeet

Title:

Glucosinolates in leaves of Moringa species grown and disseminated in Niger

Publication:

AFRICAN JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH

Abstract:

Moringa leaves rank first among the most widely consumed leafy vegetables in Niger. Glucosinolate contents in leaves of five accessions of three Moringa species (M. oleifera, M. stenopetala and M. peregrina) ranged from 2.65 mu mol/g in old leaves of M. stenopetala (Ethiopian-1) to 28.62 mu mol/g in young leaves of M. oleifera (ICG-42). An Indian introduction, PKM-1 (M. oleifera) gave maximum leaf yield (7.5 t/ha) and had maximum consumer preference than the local (M. oleifera) and Ethiopian-1 (M. stenopetala) genotypes. Large scale dissemination of PKM-1 and use of other species under different production systems are described.

URL:

http://www.academicjournals.org/ajar/PDF/pdf%202010/4%20Jun/Bellostas%20et%20al.pdf

 29.

Authors:

Sanchez-Machado, Dalia I.
Nunez-Gastelum, Jose A.
Reyes-Moreno, Cuauhtemoc
Ramirez-Wong, Benjamin
Lopez-Cervantes, Jaime

Title:

Nutritional Quality of Edible Parts of Moringa oleifera

Publication:

FOOD ANALYTICAL METHODS

Abstract:

This study was carried out in order to compare the biochemical characteristics from three edible parts of the multipurpose tree Moringa oleifera such as the leaves, flowers, and immature pods. On average, the three most abundant amino acids were glutamic acid, arginine, and aspartic acid. The fatty acids present at the highest content were linolenic acid (C18:3 omega 3), palmitic acid (C16:0), linoleic acid (C18:2 omega 6), and oleic acid (C18:1 omega 9). The chemical composition (of dry weight) ranged from 19.34% to 22.42% for protein, 1.28% to 4.96% for lipids, 7.62% to 14.60% for ash, and 30.97% to 46.78% for dietary fiber. M. oleifera is a nonconventional plant with substantial nutritional value.

URL:

http://www.springerlink.com/content/y263878138628613/

 30.

Authors:

Gueyrard, David
Iori, Renato
Tatibouet, Arnaud
Rollin, Patrick

Title:

Glucosinolate Chemistry: Synthesis of O-Glycosylated Derivatives of Glucosinalbin

Publication:

EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF ORGANIC CHEMISTRY

Abstract:

The synthesis of the major glucosinolate of Moringa oleifera and of other non-natural O-glycosylated derivatives of glucosinalbin is reported. The synthetic sequence applied, which involves the conversion of carbohydrate-based nitrostyrenes into the key thiohydroximates, appears to be sufficiently versatile to synthesize a range of glucosinolates bearing a glycosylated phenolic function. We synthesized analogues of the naturally occurring L-rhamnoside 1 with a view to estimating the importance of this phenol-protecting sugar moiety in modulating the biological activity of the parent glucosinolate and related breakdown products.

URL:

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ejoc.201000246/abstract

 31.

 Authors:

 Mahajan, Shailaja G.
Mehta, Anita A.

 Title:

 Immunosuppressive activity of ethanolic extract of seeds of Moringa oleifera Lam. in experimental immune inflammation

 Publication:

 JOURNAL OF ETHNOPHARMACOLOGY

 Abstract:

 Ethnopharmacological relevance: Traditionally, the plant Moringa oleifera Lam. (Moringaceae) is used for the treatment of ascites and rheumatism, while the dried seeds of the plant are used as an ‘anti-allergic’ agent.
Aim of the study: The aim of the study was to assess the efficacy of ethanolic extract of seeds from Moringa oleifera Lam. in experimental immune inflammation.
Materials and methods: Circulatory and splenic leukocyte counts, delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions and humoral antibody responses were measured in mice using SRBC as the antigen. In addition, macrophage phagocytosis was measured by the carbon clearance test.
Results: The extract dose-dependently (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg) inhibited spleen weight as well as circulatory leukocyte and splenocyte counts. The delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction was significantly inhibited (P < 0.01) by decreasing the mean foot pad thickness at 4811 The production of the humoral antibody titer was significantly ameliorated at a dose of 100 and 200 mg/kg (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01, respectively). Furthermore, the extract caused a down-regulation of macrophage phagocytosis due to carbon particles.
Conclusion: Taken together, the above findings suggest that the seeds of Moringa oleifera have immunosuppressive activity.

 URL:

 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20435128

 32.

 Authors:

 Lurling, Miquel
Beekman, Wendy

 Title:

 Anti-cyanobacterial activity of Moringa oleifera seeds

 Publication:

 JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYCOLOGY

 Abstract:

 Filtrates from crushed Moringa oleifera seeds were tested for their effects on growth and Photosystem II efficiency of the common bloom-forming cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa. M. aeruginosa populations exhibited good growth in controls and treatments with 4- and 8-mg crushed Moringa seeds per liter, having similar growth rates of 0.50 (+/- 0.01) per day. In exposures of 20- to 160-mg crushed Moringa seeds L-1, growth rates were negative and on average -0.23 (+/- 0.05) .day(-1). Presumably, in the higher doses of 20- to 160-mg crushed seeds per liter, the cyanobacteria died, which was supported by a rapid drop in the Photosystem II efficiency (I broken vertical bar(PSII)), while the I broken vertical bar(PSII) was high and unaffected in 0, 4, and 8 mg L-1. High-density populations of M. aeruginosa (chlorophyll-a concentrations of similar to 270 A mu g L-1) were reduced to very low levels within 2 weeks of exposure to a parts per thousand yen80-mg crushed seeds per liter. At the highest dosage of 160 mg L-1, the I broken vertical bar(PSII) dropped to zero rapidly and remained nil during the course of the experiment (14 days). Hence, under laboratory conditions, a complete wipeout of the bloom could be achieved. This is the first study that yielded evidence for cyanobactericidal activity of filtrate from crushed Moringa seeds, suggesting that Moringa

 URL:

 http://www.springerlink.com/content/n16435v489227514/

 33.

 Authors:

 Fernandes Vieira, Gustavo Hitzschky
Mourao, Jozeanne Alves
Angelo, Angela Maria
Costa, Renata Albuquerque
Silva dos Fernandes Vieira, Regine Helena

 Title:

 ANTIBACTERIAL EFFECT (in vitro) OF Moringa oleiferaANDAnnona muricata AGAINST GRAM POSITIVEANDGRAM NEGATIVE BACTERIA

 Publication:

 REVISTA DO INSTITUTO DE MEDICINA TROPICAL DESAO PAULO

 Abstract:

 Antibacterial effects of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of seeds of moringa (Moringa oleifera) and pods of soursop (Annona muricata) in the concentration of 1:5 and 1:10 in volumes 50, 100, 150 and 200 mu L were examined against Staphylococcus aureus, Vibrio cholerae, Escherichia coli (isolated from the organism and the aquatic environment) and Salmonella Enteritidis. Antibacterial activity (inhibition halo > 13 mm) against S. aureus, V. cholerae and E. colt isolated from the whiteleg shrimp, Litopenaeus vannmaei, was detected in aqueous and ethanolic extracts of moringa. E. colt isolated from tilapiafish. Oreochromis niloticus, was sensitive to the ethanolic extract of moringa. The aqueous extracts of soursop showed an antibacterial effect against S. aureus and V. cholerae, but the antibacterial activity by the ethanol extracts of this plant was not demonstrated.

 URL:

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20602021

 34.

 Authors:

 Astuti, D. A.
Becker, K.
Richter, N.

Title:

 Utilization of Methanol Extracted Of Moringa And Mulberry Leaves To Evaluate Energy and Protein Balance Of NileTilapia

 Publication:

 JOURNAL OF AGRICULTUREANDRURAL DEVELOPMENT IN THE TROPICSANDSUBTROPICS

 Abstract:

 Fish ration should have high protein content. Source of feed protein usually comes from animal such as fish meal and waste of fishery industries. The price of animal protein like fish meal is quite expensive and that ingredient of feed has competitive problem with human food Plant protein like legume leaves or other forage can be used for covering protein requirement of herbivore fish, but they contain high secondary compounds. These compounds may be removed by methanol extraction of the plant material, e.g. for moringa. The present study was carried out to evaluate energy balance of diet containing extracted moringa leaves and mulberry leaf meal each as 30 % protein replacement for fish meal in diets for Nile Tilapia. Three diets were designated as control diet prepared with fishmeal (C), diet 1 contain methanol extracted moringa (D-I) and diet 2 contained mulberry leaves (D-2). Fifteen Nile Tilapia were randomly kept in a 5 L capacity individual respiration chamber in which the oxygen consumption of each fish could be measured continuously (Focken et al., 1994). Prior to the experiment fish were fasted for two days in order to measure standard metabolic rate (SMR), routine metabolic rate (RAM) and spontaneous activity (SSA). After those measurements, fish were divided into three groups and fed with the test diets C. D-1 and D-2 at around 10-g feed per MBW (kg(0.8)) using automatic feeders. Fish were weighed individually every week and the oxygen consumption continuously measured for gain information on the energy expenditure (EE). At the end of the eight week, fish were sacrificed and analyzed for energy retention (ER). Feed analyses were conducted to evaluate gross energy intake (GEI), while energy metabolism (ME) was calculated from EE plus ER. The data were subjected to ANOVA and statistical comparisons between the feeding groups were made using the Duncan’s Multiple Range Test. Results showed that the average values of SMR, RMR and SSA were 49, 67 and 105 mg.kg(-0.8).h(-1), respectively. Energy intake for the control group was lower than for the other groups, while final body weight in group D-1 was the highest. The ratio EE and ME from GEI (%) were similar for groups, while ER (g) for group D-2 is the highest. It was concluded that methanol extracted moringa leaves and mulberry leaves are quite palatable and could replace 30 % of protein fish meal in diets for Nile Tilapia.

 URL:

http://repository.ipb.ac.id/bitstream/handle/123456789/36224/DA%20Astuti%203.pdf?sequence=1

 35.

 Authors:

 Araujo, Cleide S. T.
Alves, Vanessa N.
Rezende, Helen C.
Coelho, Nivia M. M.

Title:

Development of a flow system for the determination of low concentrations of silver using Moringa oleifera seeds as biosorbent and flame atomic absorption spectrometry

 Publication:

 MICROCHEMICAL JOURNAL

 Abstract:

 In this study a method for the determination of low concentrations of silver in waters using solid-phase extraction with a flow injection analysis system and detection by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) was developed. Moringa oleifera seeds were used as a biosorbent material. Chemical and flow variables of the on-line preconcentration system such as sample pH and flow rate, preconcentration time, eluent concentration and sorbent mass were studied. The optimum preconcentration conditions were obtained using sample pH in the range of 6.0-8.0, preconcentration time of 4 min at a flow rate of 3.5 mL min(-1), 0.5 mol L-1 HNO3 eluent at a flow rate of 4.5 mL min(-1) and 35 mg of sorbent mass. With the optimized conditions, the preconcentration factor, precision, detection limit and sample throughput were estimated as 35 (for preconcentration of 14 mL sample). 3.8% (5.0 mu g L-1 n = 7), 0.22 mu g L-1 and 12 samples per hour, respectively. The developed method was successfully applied to mineral water and tap water, and accuracy was assessed through analysis of a certified reference material for water (APS-1071 NIST) and recovery tests, with recovery ranging from 94 to 101%.

 URL:

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0026265X1000041X
 36.

 Authors: 

Ejoh, Richard A.
Dever, Joseph T.
Mills, Jordan P.
Tanumihardjo, Sherry A.

 Title:

Small quantities of carotenoid-rich tropical green leafy vegetables indigenous to Africamaintain vitamin A status in Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus)

 Publication:

 BRITISH JOURNAL OF NUTRITION

 Abstract:

 Leafy vegetables are important sources of provitamin A carotenoids. Information on their ability to provide vitamin A is often misleading because of the methodology used to assess bioefficacy. Mongolian gerbils were used to evaluate the bioefficacy of provitamin A carotenoids in tropical leafy vegetables (i.e. Solomon nigrum, Moringa oleifera, Vernonia calvoana and Hibiscus cannabinus) that are indigenous toAfrica. Gerbils (n 67) were vitamin A-depleted for 5 weeks. After a baseline kill (n 7), the gerbils were weight-matched and assigned to six treatment groups (n 10; four vegetable groups: negative and positive controls). For 4 weeks, the treatments included 35 nmol vitamin A (theoretical concentrations based on 100% bioefficacy) in the form of vegetables or retinyl acetate. In addition to their diets, the control and vegetable groups received daily doses of oil, while the vitamin A group received retinyl acetate in oil matched to prior day intake. Serum and livers were analysed for vitamin A using HPLC. Serum retinol concentrations did not differ among groups, but total liver vitamin A of the vitamin A and vegetable groups were higher than that of the negative control group (P<0.0001). Liver beta-carotene 15,15′-monooxygenase-1 expression levels were determined for two vegetable groups and were similar to the positive and negative controls. Conversion factors for the different leafy vegetables were between 1.9 and 2.3 mu g beta-carotene equivalents to 1 mu g retinol. Small quantities of these vegetables maintained vitamin A status in gerbils through efficient bioconversion of beta-carotene to retinol.

 URL:

 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20412609

 37.

 Authors:

 Kafuku, G.
Mbarawa, M.

 Title:

 Alkaline catalyzed biodiesel production from moringa oleifera oil with optimized production parameters

 Publication:

 APPLIED ENERGY

 Abstract:

 The utilization of non-edible feedstock such as moringa oleifera for biodiesel production attracts much attention owing to the issue with regards to avoiding a threat to food supplies In this study, the optimization of biodiesel production parameters for moringa oleifera oil was carried out. The free fatty acid value of moringa oil was found to be 0 6%. rendering the one step alkaline transesterification method for converting moringa fatty acids to their methyl esters possible. The optimum production parameters: catalyst amount, alcohol amount, temperature, agitation speed and reaction time were determined experimentally and found to be 1 0 wt% catalyst amount, 30 wt% methanol amount, 60 degrees C reaction temperature, 400 rpm agitation rate and 60 min reaction time With these optimal conditions the conversion efficiency was 82% The properties of the moringa biodiesel that was produced were observed to fall within the recommended international biodiesel standards. However, moringa biodiesel showed high values of cloud and pour points of 10 degrees C and 3 degrees C respectively, which present a problem as regards use in cold temperatures.

 URL:

 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20412609

 38.

 Authors:

 Kasolo, Josephine N.
Bimenya, Gabriel S.
Ojok, Lonzy
Ochieng, Joseph
Ogwal-Okeng, Jasper W.

 Title:

 Phytochemicals and uses of Moringa oleifera leaves in Ugandan rural communities

 Publication:

 JOURNAL OF MEDICINAL PLANTS RESEARCH

 Abstract:

 Moringa oleifera grown and used in many countries around the world is a multi-purpose tree with medicinal, nutritional and socio-economic values. In Senegaland Benin, M. oleifera leaves are dispensed as powder at health facilities to treat moderate malnutrition in children. It established the medicinal uses of M. oleifera leaves by local communities in Ugandaand identified phytochemicals present in M. oleifera leaves extracts. It used quantitative and experimental methods that established the uses, and identified phytochemicals in M. oleifera leaves. Employed serial extractions, using ether, ethanol and water as solvents. The phytochemicals were qualitatively identified using standard chemicals and standard outcomes. Twenty-four medicinal uses of M. oleifera leaves were established. Phytochemicals present included: tannins, steroids and triterpenoids, flavonoids, saponins, anthraquinones, alkaloids and reducing sugars. The local communities in Ugandause M. oleifera leaves to treat common ailments. Presence of phytochemicals in the extracts, indicate possible preventive and curative property of M. oleifera leaves. There is need to standardize M. oleifera leaves use for nutrition and herbal medicine.

 URL:

 http://www.academicjournals.org/jmpr/PDF/pdf2010/4May/Kasolo%20et%20al.pdf

 39.

 Authors:

 Amaglo, NewtonK.
Bennett, Richard N.
Lo Curto, Rosario B.
Rosa, Eduardo A. S.
Lo Turco, Vincenzo
Giuffrida, Angela
Lo Curto, Alberto
Crea, Francesco
Timpo, Gladys M.

 Title:

 Profiling selected phytochemicals and nutrients in different tissues of the multipurpose tree Moringa oleifera L., grown inGhana

 Publication:

 FOOD CHEMISTRY

 Abstract:

 The purpose of this new study was to determine the types and levels of major phytochemicals (non-nutrients) and nutrients in the different tissues from vegetative and flowering Moringa oleifera L. an important multipurpose crop. Rhamnose and acetyl-rhamnose-substituted glucosinolates were found in all of the M. oleifera tissues with different profiles depending on the tissue. In addition the tissues of M. oleifera had a relatively complex flavonoid profile consisting of glucosides, rutinosides, malonylglucosides and traces of acetylglucosides of kaempferol, quercetin and isorhamnetin. Fatty acid profiling of the different tissues showed that leaves were rich in palmitic (16:0) and linolenic (18:3) acid whereas seeds were predominated by oleic acid (18:1). Roots were rich in palmitic and oleic acid, whereas stems and twigs predominately contained palmitic acid. Potassium, magnesium and calcium were the predominant minerals in all of the tissues. Low levels of selenium were detected only in whole seeds.

 URL:

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0308814610003663
 40.

 Authors:

 Atawodi, Sunday E.
Atawodi, Joy C.
Idakwo, Gabriel A.
Pfundstein, Beate
Haubner, Roswitha
Wurtele, Gerd
Bartsch, Helmut
Owen, Robert W

Title:

 Evaluation of the Polyphenol Content and Antioxidant Properties of Methanol Extracts of the Leaves, Stem, and Root Barks of Moringa oleifera Lam.

 Publication:

 JOURNAL OF MEDICINAL FOOD

 Abstract:

Medicinal plants have been shown to have both chemopreventive and/or therapeutic effects on cancer and other diseases related to oxidative damage. Moringa oleifera Lam., known in the Hausa and Igala languages ofNigeriaas “Zogale” and “Gergedi,” respectively, and drumstick in English, is a plant that is used both as food and in folkloric medicine inNigeriaand elsewhere. Different parts of the plant were analyzed for polyphenol content as well as in vitro antioxidant potential. The methanol extract of the leaves of M. oleifera contained chlorogenic acid, rutin, quercetin glucoside, and kaempferol rhamnoglucoside, whereas in the root and stem barks, several procyanidin peaks were detected. With the xanthine oxidase model system, all the extracts exhibited strong in vitro antioxidant activity, with 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of 16, 30, and 38 mu L for the roots, leaves, and stem bark, respectively. Similarly, potent radical scavenging capacity was observed when extracts were evaluated with the 2-deoxyguanosine assay model system, with IC50 values of 40, 58, and 72 mu L for methanol extracts of the leaves, stem, and root barks, respectively. The high antioxidant/radical scavenging effects observed for different parts of M. oleifera appear to provide justification for their widespread therapeutic use in traditional medicine in different continents. The possibility that this high antioxidant/radical scavenging capacity may impact on the cancer chemopreventive potential of the plant must be considered.

 URL:

 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20521992

 41.

 Authors:

 Phiri, C.
Mbewe, D. N.

 Title:

 Influence of Moringa oleifera Leaf Extracts on Germination and Seedling Survival of Three Common Legumes

 Publication:

 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF AGRICULTUREANDBIOLOGY

 Abstract:

 Influence of Moringa (Moringa oleifera) leaf extracts on germination and seedling survival of three popularly consumed legumes; beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), groundnut (Arachis hypogea L.) and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) was investigated. Extracts from Moringa leaves forced beans to germinate early and increased duration to first germination by 100%. Extract from Moringa increased germination percentage of cowpea by 4%, while reduced germination of groundnut seed by 4%. Moringa extract lowered seedling survival by 3.7% each of beans and cowpea and 10% in groundnut. Moringa extract increased radical length by 4% in beans, but reduced radicle length of cowpea by 24% and by 21% in groundnut. These extracts increased hypocotyl length by 16.6% in groundnut, but reduced hypocotyl length by 14% in cowpea, while it did not affect hypocotyl length in beans. Moringa extract reduced development of seed hypocotyls by 4% in beans, 4.4% in cowpea and 66.6% in groundnut. Application of Moringa leaf extracts to legume seeds will delay crop emergence and reduce root length and field survival of legume crops.

 URL:

http://scihub.org/ABJNA/PDF/2010/5/ABJNA-1-5-774-777.pdf

 42.

 Authors:

 Anjorin, Toba Samuel
Ikokoh, Pius
Okolo, Simon

 Title:

 Mineral Composition of Moringa oleifera Leaves, Pods and Seeds from Two Regions inAbuja,Nigeria

 Publication:

 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURE ANDBIOLOGY

Abstract:

 The mineral composition of the lamina, petiole, seed pod, seed shell, seed kernel powder and seed kernel oil of Moringa oleifera L. from two regions, Sheda and Kuje,Abuja,Nigeriawere investigated. The results indicated that Ca, Mg, Fe and Cu in M. oleifera leaves, pods and seeds from Sheda were relatively higher than that from Kuje. Relatively high contents of Ca and Fe were found in the lamina and seed shell of the plant respectively from both regions. The Mg content (0.185 mg mL(-1)) in the seed kernel oil of moringa from Sheda was significantly lower (P <= 0.05) than that in the other parts of leaf and seed. The Fe content in the seed shell from Sheda was 0.2436 mg g(-1) more than those from Kuje. Toxic element such as Pb was absent in the leaves, pods and seeds of moringa from both locations. This study confirmed that there are variations in macro and trace minerals in moringa leaves, pods and seeds from different locations. This finding might be a reference point in the selection and formulation of plant-based mineral supplement in animal and human nutrition.

 URL:

 http://www.fspublishers.org/ijab/past-issues/IJABVOL_12_NO_3/22.pdf

 43. 

Authors:

Ajeigbe, Sunday O.
Egwim, Evans C.
Okafor, J. O.

Title:

I&EC 8-Corrosion inhibition studies of moringa oleifera lam extract on mild steel and copper in hydrochloric acid solution

 Publication:

ABSTRACTS OF PAPERS OF THE AMERICAN CHEMICAL SOCIETY

Abstract:

No posted

URL:

http://oasys2.confex.com/acs/235nm/techprogram/P1146204.HTM

44.

 Authors:

Wu, Ta Yeong
Mohammad, Abdul Wahab
Jahim, Jamaliah Md.
Anuar, Nurina

 Title:

Pollution control technologies for the treatment of palm oil mill effluent (POME) through end-of-pipe processes

 Publication:

JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT

 Abstract:

Palm oil production is one of the major industries inMalaysiaand this country ranks one of the largest productions in the world. InMalaysia, the total production of crude palm oil in 2008 was 17,734,441 tonnes. However, the production of this amount of crude palm oil results in even larger amounts of palm oil mill effluent (POME). In the year 2008 alone, at least 44 million tonnes of POME was generated inMalaysia. Currently, the ponding system is the most common treatment method for POME but other processes such as aerobic and anaerobic digestion, physicochemical treatment and membrane filtration may also provide the palm oil industries with possible insights into the improvement of POME treatment processes. Generally, open ponding offers low capital and operating costs but this conventional method is becoming less attractive because the methane produced is wasted to the atmosphere and the system can not be certified for Carbon Emission Reduction trading. On the other hand, anaerobic digestion of POME provides the fastest payback of investment because the treatment enables biogas recovery for heat generation and treated effluent for land application. Lastly, it is proposed herewith that wastewater management based on the promotion of cleaner production and environmentally sound biotechnologies should be prioritized and included as a part of the POME management inMalaysiafor attaining sustainable development. This paper thus discusses and compares state-of-the-art POME treatment methods as well as their individual performances.

 URL:

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20231054

 45.

 Authors:

Koike, Yuka
Fukumura, Motonori
Hirai, Yasuaki
Hori, Yumiko
Usui, Shiho
Atsumi, Toshiyuki
Toriizuka, Kazuo

 Title:

Novel phenolic glycosides, adenophorasides A-E, from Adenophora roots

 Publication:

JOURNAL OF NATURAL MEDICINES

 Abstract:

Five novel phenolic glycosides, adenophorasides A (1), B (2), C (3), D (4), and E (5), were isolated from commercial Adenophora roots, together with vanilloloside (6), 3,4-dimethoxybenzyl alcohol 7-O-beta-d-glucopyranoside (7), and lobetyolin (8). The structures of the new compounds (1-5) were characterized as 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenylacetonitrile 4-O-beta-d-glucopyranoside (1), 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenylacetonitrile 4-O-beta-d-glucopyranosyl-(1 -> 6)-beta-d-glucopyranoside (2), 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenylacetonitrile 4-O-alpha-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 -> 6)-beta-d-glucopyranoside (3), 4-hydroxyphenylacetonitrile 4-O-beta-d-glucopyranosyl-(1 -> 6)-beta-d-glucopyranoside (4), and 4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzyl alcohol 4-O-beta-d-glucopyranosyl-(1 -> 6)-beta-d-glucopyranoside (5), respectively, by means of spectroscopic and chemical analyses.

 URL:

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20229365

 46.

 Authors:

Sanchez-Martin, J.
Ghebremichael, K.
Beltran-Heredia, J.

 Title:

Comparison of single-step and two-step purified coagulants from Moringa oleifera seed for turbidity andDOCremoval

 Publication:

BIORESOURCE TECHNOLOGY

 Abstract:

The coagulant proteins from Moringa oleifera purified with single-step and two-step ion-exchange processes were used for the coagulation of surface water fromMeuseriver in The Netherlands. The performances of the two purified coagulants and the crude extract were assessed in terms of turbidity andDOCremoval. The results indicated that the optimum dosage of the single-step purified coagulant was more than two times higher compared to the two-step purified coagulant in terms of turbidity removal. And the residualDOCin the two-step purified coagulant was lower than in single-step purified coagulant or crude extract.

 URL:

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20299212

 47.

 Authors:

Firth, Jacqueline
Balraj, Vinohar
Muliyil, Jayaprakash
Roy, Sheela
Rani, Lilly Michael
Chandresekhar, R.
Kang, Gagandeep

 Title:

Point-of-Use Interventions to Decrease Contamination of Drinking Water: A Randomized, Controlled Pilot Study on Efficacy, Effectiveness, and Acceptability of Closed Containers, Moringa oleifera, and In-home Chlorination in Rural South India

 Publication:

AMERICAN JOURNAL OF TROPICAL MEDICINEANDHYGIENE

 Abstract:

To assess water contamination and the relative effectiveness of three options for point-of-use water treatment inSouth India, we conducted a 6-month randomized, controlled intervention trial using chlorine. Moringa oleifera seeds, a closed valved container, and controls. One hundred twenty-six families participated. Approximately 70% of public drinking water sources had thermotolerant conform counts > 100/100 mL. Neither M. oleifera seeds nor containers reduced conform counts in water samples from participants homes. Chlorine reduced thermotolerant conform counts to potable levels, but was less acceptable to participants. Laboratory testing of M. oleifera seeds in water from the village confirmed the lack of reduction in coli form counts, in contrast to the improvement seen with Escherichia coli seeded distilled water. This discrepancy merits further study, as M. oleifera was effective in reducing conform counts in other studies and compliance with Moringa use in this study was high.

 URL:

http://www.ajtmh.org/cgi/content/abstract/82/5/759

 

48.

 Authors:

Tat, Wai Kien
Idris, Azni
Noor, Megat Johari Megat Mohd
Mohamed, Thamer A.
Ghazali, Abdul Halim
Muyibi, Suleyman A

 Title:

Optimization study on sewage sludge conditioning using Moringa oleifera seeds

 Publication:

DESALINATIONANDWATER TREATMENT

Abstract:

Disposal of sewage sludge is a main problem faced by local municipalities inMalaysia. Sludge conditioned with chemical polymer often termed as undesirable use for land application. However, using natural polymer will help to reduce the impact of this problem. In this study, optimization using Moringa oleifera seeds as a natural polymer in sewage sludge conditioning is highlighted. An earlier sludge conditioning using jar test apparatus was conducted using Moringa oleifera seeds in three different forms; dry powder, distilled water extracted and salt extracted (1 N NaCl). Results from the study indicate that Moringa oleifera in distilled water extracted form shows the most optimum reduction in Capillary Suction Time (CST) value. Optimization of three important factors namely mixing speed, mixing duration and Moringa oleifera dosage for distilled water extracted form was done using Design of Experiments (DOE). Optimum values for the selected factors were obtained using Box-Behnken design, Response Surface Design Method (RSM). There was a total of seven set of optimized solutions produced. The best solution generated showed lowest CST and Specific Resistance to Filtration (SRF) was obtained at 4.5 s and 1.22 x 10(11) m/kg respectively. These values were obtained under the optimum conditions of mixing speed at 100 rpm, mixing duration of 1 min and Moringa oleifera dosage of 4695 mg/L. The desirability index for the optimized solution was 1.000.

 URL:

http://cat.inist.fr/?aModele=afficheN&cpsidt=22630575

 

49.

 Authors:

Iffiu-Soltesz, Zsuzsa
Wanecq, Estelle
Lomba, Almudena
Portillo, Maria P.
Pellati, Federica
Szoko, Eva
Bour, Sandy
Woodley, John
Milagro, Fermin I.
Alfredo Martinez, J.
Valet, Philippe
Carpene, Christian

 Title:

Chronic benzylamine administration in the drinking water improves glucose tolerance, reduces body weight gain and circulating cholesterol in high-fat diet-fed mice

 Publication:

PHARMACOLOGICAL RESEARCH

 Abstract:

Benzylamine is found in Moringa oleifera, a plant used to treat diabetes in traditional medicine. In mammals, benzylamine is metabolized by semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase (SSAO) to benzaldehyde and hydrogen peroxide. This latter product has insulin-mimicking action, and is involved in the effects of benzylamine on human adipocytes: stimulation of glucose transport and inhibition of lipolysis. This study examined whether chronic, oral administration of benzylamine could improve glucose tolerance and the circulating lipid profile without increasing oxidative stress in overweight and pre-diabetic mice. The benzylamine diffusion across the intestine was verified using everted gut sacs. Then, glucose handling and metabolic markers were measured in mice rendered insulin-resistant when fed a high-fat diet (HFD) and receiving or not benzylamine in their drinking water (3600 mu mol/(kg day)) for 17 weeks. HFD-benzylamine mice showed lower body weight gain, fasting blood glucose, total plasma cholesterol and hyperglycaemic response to glucose load when compared to HFD control. In adipocytes, insulin-induced activation of glucose transport and inhibition of lipolysis remained unchanged. In aorta, benzylamine treatment partially restored the nitrite levels that were reduced by HFD. In liver, lipid peroxidation markers were reduced. Resistin and uric acid, surrogate plasma markers of metabolic syndrome, were decreased. In spite of the putative deleterious nature of the hydrogen peroxide generated during amine oxidation, and in agreement with its in vitro insulin-like actions found on adipocytes, the SSAO-substrate benzylamine could be considered as a potential oral agent to treat metabolic syndrome.

 URL:

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20045461

 50.

 Authors:

Kalavathy, M. Helen
Miranda,Lima Rose

 Title:

Moringa oleifera-A solid phase extractant for the removal of copper, nickel and zinc from aqueous solutions

 Publication:

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING JOURNAL

 Abstract:

Moringa oleifera (MO) wood, a solid waste was used for the preparation of activated carbon (ACMO) for the removal of copper, nickel and zinc from synthetic wastewater. Effects of various operating variables namely solution pH, contact time, carbon dose, adsorbate concentration and temperature on the removal of metal ions have been studied. Thermodynamic parameters such as free energy change, enthalpy change and entropy change were calculated. The optimum pH for the adsorption for all the above mentioned metals was found to be 6. The adsorption process was found to be endothermic for Cu and exothermic for Ni and Zn. The Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin and Dubinin Radushkevich isotherm models were used to analyze the equilibrium data at different temperatures. The data were also fitted to kinetic models such as pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order model. Kinetic studies showed that the adsorption followed a pseudo-second-order model. The intra-particle diffusion rate constants and effective diffusion coefficient for different temperatures were evaluated and discussed. Adsorption occurs both by film diffusion and particle diffusion mechanism. The ACMO could be regenerated using 0.1 M H2SO4, with up to 98% recovery for all the three metals.

 URL:

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6TFJ-4Y1VSN1-6&_user=10&_coverDate=04%2F01%2F2010&_rdoc=1&_fmt=high&_orig=search&_origin=search&_sort=d&_docanchor=&view=

51.

Authors:

Martin, Carlos
Moure, Andres
Martin, Giraldo
Carrillo, Eugenio
Dominguez, Herminia
Parajo, Juan C.

Title:

Fractional characterisation of jatropha, neem, moringa, trisperma, castor and candlenut seeds as potential feedstocks for biodiesel production inCuba

 Publication:

BIOMASS & BIOENERGY

 Abstract:

A preliminary investigation on the suitability of various non-edible oil seeds for the integral utilisation of their fractions for production of biodiesel and other products was carried out. The oil seeds considered were jatropha (Jatropha curcas), neem (Azadirachta indica), moringa (Moringa oleifera), trisperma (Aleurites trisperma), castor beans (Ricinus communis) and candlenut (Aleurites moluccana). The highest oil content (62.0% (w/w)) was found in trisperma seeds, but the use of that oil for biodiesel production is restricted by its high content of polyunsaturated fatty acids. The oils of castor beans and moringa contained 86.0% of ricinoleic acid and 70.6% of oleic acid, respectively, while in the oils from the other seeds no predominance of any acid was observed. According to the oil yield and to the fatty acid composition of the oil, jatropha was identified as the most promising oil seed for biodiesel production inCuba. All the press cakes were rich in protein, the highest content (68.6%) being detected in moringa cake. The investigation revealed that the husks of neem and moringa can be considered potential substrates for ethanol production due to their high cellulose content (approximately 30%). A high concentration (4.3%) of acetyl groups was found in neem husks, what is favourable for the hydrolytic conversion of polysaccharides to simple sugars. A high protein content (15.2%) was detected in moringa husks, which is a positive feature for lowering the cost of nutrient supplementation in ethanolic fermentation.

URL:

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0961953409002669

 52.

Authors:

Rizwan, Muhammad
Athar, Muhammad Makshoof
Ali, Muhammad
Shaheen, Muhammad Ashraf
Tariq, Muhammad Ilyas
Iqbal, Shahid
Rehman, Fayaz Ur
Farooq, Robeena
Karim, Abdul
Ahmed, Nazir
Maqbool, Shazia

 Title:

Biosorption Treatment of Brackish Water

 Publication:

JOURNAL OF THE CHEMICAL SOCIETY OFPAKISTAN

 Abstract:

Biosorptivity of different agricultural wastes have been evaluated for the treatment of brackish water and a new method, based on the principle of bio-sorption has been described. Wastes of the Saccharum officinarum, Moringa oleifera, Triticum aestivcum and Oryza saliva have been used in raw forms as well as after converting them into ash and activated carbon as biosorbents for treatment of brackish water in this study. Samples of brackish water have been analyzed before and after treatment for quality control parameters of water. A significant improvement has been observed in quality control parameters of water after treatment. pH of the water samples slightly increased from 7.68 to 7.97 with different treatments. A substantial decrease in conductivity,TDS, TH, concentrations of cations and anions was observed in the samples of brackish water after treatment with different biosorbents.

 URL:

No url

 53.

Authors:

Kumar, Devendra
Kashyap, S. K.
Maherchandani, S.

 Title:

ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF SOME PLANT EXTRACTS

 Publication:

VETERINARY PRACTITIONER

 Abstract:

Antibacterial activity of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of 10 indigenous plants Aloe vera, Withania somnifera, Moringa oleifera, Salvadora persica, Citrullus colocynthis, Salvadora oleoides, Pongamia pinnata, Datura stramonium, Crotolaria burhia and Aerva persica was determined against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli in terms of minimum lethal concentration. Aloe vera had the highest and strong anti Staphylococcus aureus activity followed by Withania somnifera and Salvadora oleoides. Moringa oleifera, Salvadora persica, Citrullus colocynthis and Aerva persica showed moderate anti Staphylococcus aureus activity. Aloe vera extracts showed highest and strong activity against E. coli. Salvadora persica, Citrullus colocynthis, Aerva persica and Moringa oleifera extracts demonstrated moderate anti E. coli activity. Pongamia pinnata and Withania somnifera aqueous extracts showed better anti E coli activity than its alcoholic extract

 URL:

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18404337

 54.

Authors:

Barreto, Milena B.
de Freitas, Joao Vito B.
Silveira, Edilberto R.
Bezerra, Antonio Marcos E.
Nunes, Edson P.
Gramosa, Nilce V.

 Title:

Volatile and non-volatile chemical constituents of Moringa oleifera Lam., Moringaceae.

 Publication:

REVISTA BRASILEIRA DE FARMACOGNOSIA-BRAZILIAN JOURNAL OF PHARMACOGNOSY

 Abstract:

“Volatile and non-volatile chemical constituents of Moringa oleifera Lam., Moringaceae”. Phytochemical analysis of the ethanol extract from leaves of Moringa oleifera Lam., Moringaceae, yield the benzylnitriles: niazirine, niazirinine and 4-hydroxyphenylacetonitrile, while of fruit shells only octacosane was isolated. The essential oils from leaves, flowers and fruits were examined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The major constituents identified were: phytol (21.6%) and thymol (9.6%) in the leaves oil, octadecane (27.4%) and hexadecanoic acid (18.4%) in the flowers oil, docosane (32.7%) and tetracosane (24.0%) in the fruits oil. The structures of all compounds were identified by spectroscopic analyses (NMR, IR and MS). 4-hydroxyphenylacetonitrile is reported for the first time to the Moringa genus and the essential oils of flowers and fruits are reported for the first time to the species M. oleifera.

 URL:

http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?pid=S0102-695X2009000600018&script=sci_abstract

 55.

Authors:

Bhatti, Haq Nawaz
Nasir, Abdul Waheed
Hanif, Muhammad Asif

 Title:

Efficacy of Daucus carota L. waste biomass for the removal of chromium from aqueous solutions

 Publication:

DESALINATION

 Abstract:

In the present study the removal of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) using Daucus carota L. (carrot) waste biomass was investigated from aqueous Solutions Biosorption studies were determined as a function of contact time. pH. initial metal ion concentration. biosorbent size and biosorbent dose. Maximum uptake capacity of D. carota L waste biomass for Cr(III) (86 65 mg/g) and Cr(VI) (88 27 mg/g) was observed at pH 1 and 5 respectively. Optimum biosorbent dose (0.1 g), biosorbent size (0.250 mm), initial concentration (100 mg/L), temperature (30 degrees C) and contact time (240 min) gave maximum biosorption. The sorption isotherms followed the langmuir type suggesting monolayer sorption character A high degree of correlation coefficient was obtained for the second-order kinetic model To evaluate the effect of pretreatment oil Cr(III) and Cr(VI) uptake by D carota L., the waste biomass was physically as well as chemically pretreated Maximum Cr(III) and Cr(VI) uptake was observed with acetone and Moringa oleifera extract pretreated D carota L. waste biomass. The results also demonstrate that chromium uptake capacity of D. carota L waste biomass was comparatively higher than most of early reported work.

 URL:

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0011916409013174

 56.

Authors:

Brunelli, Dario
Tavecchio, Michele
Falcioni, Cristiano
Frapolli, Roberta
Erba, Eugenio
Iori, Renato
Rollin, Patrick
Barillari, Jessica
Manzotti, Carla
Morazzoni, Paolo
D’Incalci, Maurizio

 Title:

The isothiocyanate produced from glucomoringin inhibits NF-kB and reduces myeloma growth in nude mice in vivo

 Publication:

BIOCHEMICAL PHARMACOLOGY

 Abstract:

Glucosinolates (GLs), natural compounds extracted from Brassicaceae and precursors of isothiocyanates (ITCs), have been studied in the last decades mostly due to their chemopreventive activity and, more recently, for their potential use as novel chemotherapeutics. The aim of the present study was to investigate the in vitro and in vivo activity of glucomoringin (GMG), an uncommon member of the Us family, and to compare it with glucoraphanin (GRA), one of the most studied GL. We have evaluated the potency of both compounds in inducing cell death, cell cycle perturbations, apoptosis, NF-kB inhibition and GST-pi activity in human carcinoma cells with different GST-pi contents as well as in human multiple myeloma and leukaemia cell lines. GMG-derived ITC (GMG-ITC) showed to be more effective compared toGRA-derived ITC (Sulforaphane), especially in inhibiting NF-kB activity and inducing apoptosis through a caspase-dependent pathway; these effects were more pronounced in myeloma cells, in which we could also observe a long lasting growth inhibitory effect, probably due to NF-kB inhibition, which is considered essential for myeloma cell survival. Both GLs were able to induce cell death in the mu M range in all tested cell lines but caused cell cycle perturbations only in myeloma cells; they were also able to modulate the GST/GSHpathway by causing a 3-fold increase in GST-pi activity inMCF7 cells. In vivo study showed that pure GMG-ITC was only slightly active in a carcinoma mice model, whereas it had significant antitumoral activity in a myeloma model, causing little toxicity.

 URL:

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20006591

 57.

Authors:

Kwaambwa, Habauka M.
Hellsing, Maja
Rennie, Adrian R.

 Title:

Adsorption of a Water Treatment Protein from Moringa oleifera Seeds to a Silicon Oxide Surface Studied by Neutron Reflection

 Publication:

LANGMUIR

 Abstract:

An extract from the seeds of the Moringa oleifera tree that is principally a low molecular mass protein is known to be efficient as a coagulating agent for water treatment. The present paper investigates the adsorption of the purified protein to silica interfaces in order to elucidate the mechanism of its function as a flocculent. Neutron reflection permits the determination of the structure and composition of interfacial layers at the solid/solution interface. Dense layers of protein with about 5.5 mg m(-2) were found at concentrations above 0.025% wt. The overall thickness with a dense layer in excess of 60 angstrom at 0.05 wt % suggests strong co-operative binding rather than single isolated molecules. All ionic surfactant, sodium dodecyl sulfate, was also seen to coadsorb. This strong adsorption of protein in combination with the tendency for the protein to associate suggests a mechanism for destabilizing particulate dispersions to provide filterable water. This call occur even for the protein that has previously been identified as being of low mass (about 7 kDaltons) and thus is unlikely to be efficient in bridging or depletion flocculation.

 URL:

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20163083

 58.

Authors:

Preston, Kelsey
Lantagne, Daniele
Kotlarz, Nadine
Jellison, Kristen

 Title:                                                                                      

Turbidity and chlorine demand reduction using alum and moringa flocculation before household chlorination in developing countries

 Publication:

JOURNAL OF WATERANDHEALTH

 Abstract:

Over 1.1 billion people in the world lack access to improved drinking water. Diarrhoeal and other waterborne diseases cause an estimated 1.87 million deaths per year. The Safe Water System (SWS) is a household water treatment intervention that reduces diarrhoeal disease incidence among users in developing countries. Turbid waters pose a particular challenge to implementation ofSWSprogrammes; although research shows that a 3.75 mgl(-1) sodium hypochlorite dose effectively treats turbid waters, users sometimes object to the strong chlorine taste and prefer to drink water that is more aesthetically pleasing. This study investigated the efficacy of two locally available chemical water treatments-alum and Moringa oleifera flocculation-to reduce turbidity and chlorine demand at turbidities of 10, 30, 70, 100 and 300 NTU. Both treatments effectively reduced turbidity (alum flocculation 23.0-91.4%; moringa flocculation 14.2-96.2%). Alum flocculation effectively reduced chlorine demand compared with controls at 30, 70, 100 and 300 NTU (p = 0.01-0.06). Moringa flocculation increased chlorine demand to the point where adequate free chlorine residual was not maintained for 24 hours after treatment. Alum pretreatment is recommended in waters >= 30 NTU for optimum water disinfection. Moringa flocculation is not recommended before chlorination.

 URL:

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20009248

 59.

Authors:

Gowrishankar, Ramadurai
Kumar, Manish
Menon, Vinay
Divi, Sai Mangala
Saravanan, M.
Magudapathy, P.
Panigrahi, B. K.
Nair, K. G. M.
Venkataramaniah, K.

 Title:

Trace Element Studies on Tinospora cordifolia (Menispermaceae), Ocimum sanctum (Lamiaceae), Moringa oleifera (Moringaceae), and Phyllanthus niruri (Euphorbiaceae) Using PIXE

 Publication:

BIOLOGICAL TRACE ELEMENT RESEARCH

 Abstract:

Traditionally, Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Hook. F. & Thomson (Menispermaceae), Ocimum sanctum L. (Lamiaceae), Moringa oleifera Lam. (Moringaceae), and Phyllanthus niruri L. (Euphorbiaceae) are some of the commonly used medicinal plants in India for curing ailments ranging from common cold, skin diseases, and dental infections to major disorders like diabetes, hypertension, jaundice, rheumatism, etc. To understand and correlate their medicinal use, trace element studies on the aqueous extract of these medicinal plants have been carried out using particle-induced X-ray emission technique. A 2-MeV proton beam was used to identify and characterize major and minor elements namely Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, and Sr in them. Results have revealed that these elements are present in varying concentrations in the selected plants. Notable results include very high concentrations of Cl, K, and Ca in all the leaf samples, appreciable levels of Mn in all plants, high Zn content in T. cordifolia, and the aqueous extract of Moringa leaves compared to others and relative higher concentrations of Cr in all the plants.

 URL:

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19588079

 60.

Authors:

Krishnaraju, A. V.
Sundararaju, D.
Srinivas, P.
Rao, C. V.
Sengupta, K.
Trimurtulu, G.

 Title:

Safety and toxicological evaluation of a novel anti-obesity formulation LI85008F in animals

 Publication:

TOXICOLOGY MECHANISMSANDMETHODS

 Abstract:

LI85008F is a novel synergistic composition of Moringa oleifera, Murraya koenigi, and Curcuma longa. These herbs are well recognized and widely used in ayurvedic system of medicine for treating a variety of diseases and are also have been used for culinary purposes for thousands of years. LI85008F inhibits preadipocyte differentiation and potentiates lipid breakdown in mature adipocytes. In diet-induced obese rats, LI85008F significantly reduced weight gain and improved serum adiponectin levels. These findings motivated the authors to determine the broad-spectrum safety of LI85008F. Acute oral toxicity, acute dermal toxicity, primary skin irritation, primary eye irritation, and dose-dependent 28-day sub-acute toxicity studies were conducted. The acute oral LD50 of LI85008F was greater than 5000 mg/kg in female SD rats and no changes in body weight or adverse effects were observed following necropsy. Acute dermal LD50 of LI85008F was greater than 2000 mg/kg. LI85008F was classified as non-irritating to skin in a primary dermal irritation study conducted using New Zealand Albino rabbits. LI85008F caused minimal irritation to eyes in a primary eye irritation test conducted on New Zealand Albino rabbits. A dose-dependent 28-day sub-acute toxicity study demonstrated no significant changes in selected organ weights. Evaluations on hematology, clinical chemistry, and histopathology did not show any significant adverse changes. The NOAEL of LI85008F was found to be greater than 2500 mg/kg body weight. These results demonstrate the broad spectrum safety of LI85008F in animal models.

URL:

http://informahealthcare.com/doi/abs/10.3109/15376510903483722?journalCode=txm

 61.

Authors:

Jilcott, Stephanie B.
Ickes, Scott B.
Ammerman, Alice S.
Myhre, Jennifer A.

 Title:

Iterative Design, Implementation and Evaluation of a Supplemental Feeding Program for Underweight Children Ages 6-59 Months inWestern Uganda

 Publication:

MATERNALANDCHILD HEALTH JOURNAL

 Abstract:

Objective In this paper we describe the development, implementation, evaluation, and subsequent improvements of a supplemental feeding program that provides community-based care to underweight children in a rural East African setting, using a locally-sourced and produced ready-to-use food (RUF). Methods Production teams were trained to grind soybeans and groundnuts (peanuts), which were then mixed with moringa oleifera leaf powder to form an energy-dense supplemental food, designed for use as an RUF. Eligible children (based on low weight-for-age or mid-upper-arm circumference < 12 cm) received RUF of approximately 682 kcal per day for five weeks. Weekly growth monitoring and caregiver education were provided by trained health center staff and community volunteers. The program was evaluated by examining RUF nutrient composition, weight gain velocity, and qualitative data from key-informant interviews and home feeding observations. Results Locally-produced RUF had similar energy density but higher protein content than commercial RUTF (ready-to-use therapeutic food). Mean weight gain of children was 2.5 g/kg/day (range 0.9-6.0). Feeding observations revealed that caregivers were diluting the RUF fed to children. Production team members desired increased financial compensation for their work but were enthusiastic about the program as helpful to malnourished children. Conclusions Locally-produced RUF is a promising strategy for community-based care of moderately malnourished children. Through the production team’s entrepreneurship, a small business was formed, whereby financial incentives encouraged continued RUF production. Future efforts are needed to educate caregivers on correct RUF use and improve commercial viability in local markets.

 URL:

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19199014

 62.

Authors:

Antov, Mirjana G.

Sciban, Marina B.

Petrovic, Nada J.

Title:

Proteins from common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) seed as a natural coagulant for potential application in water turbidity removal

 Publication:

BIORESOURCE TECHNOLOGY

 Abstract:

The ability of coagulation active proteins from common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) seed for the removal of water turbidity was studied. Partial purification of protein coagulant was performed by precipitation with ammonium sulphate, dialysis and anion exchange chromatography. Adsorption parameters for ion-exchange process were established using dialysate extract. Results revealed that the highest values of the adsorbed protein were achieved in 50 mmol/L phosphate buffer at pH 7.5 and the maximum adsorption Capacity Was Calculated to be 0.51 mg protein/mL matrix. Partially purified coagulant at initial turbidity 35 NTU expressed the highest value of coagulation activity, 72.3%, which was almost 22 times higher than those obtained by crude extract considering applied dosages. At the same time, the increase in organic matter that remained in water after coagulation with purified protein coagulant was more than 16 times lower than those with crude extract, relatively to its content in blank.

 URL:

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19948400

 63.

Authors:

Hamza, Alaaeldin A.

 Title:

Ameliorative effects of Moringa oleifera Lam seed extract on liver fibrosis in rats

 Publication:

FOODANDCHEMICAL TOXICOLOGY

 Abstract:

This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of Moringa oleifera Lam (Moringa) seed extract on liver fibrosis. Liver fibrosis was induced by the oral administration of 20% carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), twice weekly and for 8 weeks. Simultaneously, M. oleifera Lam seed extract (1g/kg) was orally administered daily. The biochemical and histological results showed that Moringa reduced liver damage as well as symptoms of liver fibrosis. The administration of Moringa seed extract decreased the CCl4-induced elevation of serum aminotransferase activities and globulin level. The elevations of hepatic hydroxyproline content and myeloperoxidase activity were also reduced by Moringa treatment. Furthermore, the immunohistochemical study showed that Moringa markedly reduced the numbers of smooth muscle alpha-actin-positive cells and the accumulation of collagens I and III in liver. Moringa seed extract showed significant inhibitory effect on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl free radical, as well as strong reducing antioxidant power. The activity of superoxide dismutase as well as the content of both malondialdehyde and protein carbonyl, which are oxidative stress markers, were reversed after treatment with Moringa. Finally, these results suggested that Moringa seed extract can act against CCl4-induced liver injury and fibrosis in rats by a mechanism related to its antioxidant properties, anti-inflammatory effect and its ability to attenuate the hepatic stellate cells activation.

 URL:

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19854235

 64.

Authors:

Nadeem, Raziya
Ansari, Tariq Mahmood
Akhtar, Kalsoom
Khalid, Ahmad Mukhtar

 Title:

Pb(II) sorption by pyrolysed Pongamia pinnata pods carbon (PPPC)

 Publication:

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING JOURNAL

 Abstract:

Experiments employing pyrolysed Pongamia pinnata pods carbon (PPPC) to delineate the effects of environmental variables like pH, sorbent dosage, sorbate concentration, contact time and physicochemical pretreatments on Pb(II) sorption were conducted. Maximum adsorption capacity 170.6 mg g(-1) was observed at pH 3.5. Pb(II) sorption data was fitted to Langmuir, Fruendlich, Dubnin-Radushkevich and Tempkin isotherms while time dependent study was well described by pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The equilibrium data suited well the Langmuir isotherm with q(max) value of 370 mg g(-1). FFIR spectroscopic analysis of PPPC revealed the existence of various alkane, aromatic C = C and oxygen functionalities along with aromatic NO2 and surface SO2 complexes. The surface modification by various physicochemical approaches markedly influenced the chemical structure of PPPC. FFIR spectra confirmed that the basic pretreatment caused an increase in the hydroxyl group contents; acidic treatment increased the amount of single bonded oxygen functional groups along with bond cleavage while significant changes took place in the spectrum of boiled PPPC.

 URL:

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1385894709002162

 65.

Authors:

Kumar, Munesh
Malik, Vikrant
Joshi, Mukesh

 Title:

Allelopathic effects of Melia azedarach, Morus alba and Moringa oleifera on germination, radicle and plumule growth of Glycine max

 Publication:

RANGE MANAGEMENTANDAGROFORESTRY

 Abstract:

No abstract

URL:

http://www.cabdirect.org/abstracts/20103042922.html

 66.

Authors:

Chen, Mei-Jung
Chen, Kang-Hua
Chen, Yi-Jui
Fang, Yu-Wen
Yang, Chao-Hsun
Huang, Shih-Hsien

 Title:

THE EXTRACT OF MORINGA OLEIFERA ATTENUATES MONOCROTALINE-INDUCED PULMONARY HYPERTENSION IN RATS

 Publication:

JOURNAL OF PHYSIOLOGICAL SCIENCES

 Abstract:

No abstract

 URL:

No URL

67.

Authors:

Alves, Vanessa Nunes
Mosquetta, Rafael
Melo Coelho, Nivia Maria
Bianchin, Joyce Nunes
Di Pietro Roux, Kalya Cravo
Martendal, Edmar
Carasek, Eduardo

 Title:

Determination of cadmium in alcohol fuel using Moringa oleifera seeds as a biosorbent in an on-line system coupled to FAAS

 Publication:

TALANTA

 Abstract:

In this study a new method for determination of cadmium in alcohol fuel using Moringa oleifera seeds as a biosorbent in an on-line preconcentration system coupled to flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) was developed. Flow and chemical variables of the proposed system were optimized through multivariate designs. The limit of detection for cadmium was 5.50 mu g L-1 and the precision was below 2.3% (35.0 mu g L-1, n = 9). The analytical curve was linear from 5 to 150 mu g L-1, with a correlation coefficient of 0.9993. The developed method was successfully applied to spiked alcohol fuel, and accuracy was assessed through recovery tests, with recovery ranging from 97.50 to 100.

 URL:

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20006064

 68.

Authors:

De Oliveira, Letuzia Maria
Cardoso Ribeiro, Maria Clarete
Maracaja, Patricio Borges
Carvalho, Geila Santos

 Title:

DIFFERENT PACKAGING, ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONSANDSTORAGE PERIODS INFLUENCING THE PHYSIOLOGICAL QUALITY OF MORINGA SEEDS

 Publication:

REVISTA CAATINGA

 Abstract:

The moringa oleifera Lam. tree, a native plant species from tropical Africa, although it has been in introduced in Brazil as an ornamental tree, it can be used for industrial and medicine purposes. The work was to evaluate the physiological quality of the jug with different reservoirs and environmental conditions for a period of six months. The study was conducted in the laboratory of plant physiology in UFERSA, where the seeds were obtained, which were stored after the harvest in three different containers: plastic bag, paper bag and glass which were stored at room temperature and cold for a period of three and six months. After 12 days of sowing, evaluations were made of the speed of germination index (IVG), height and fresh and dry matter of seedlings. The experimental design was entirely randomized in a factorial 3 x 2 x 2, and studied three containers (plastic bag, paper bag and glass), two environments (temperature and cold) and two storage periods (3 and 6 months) with four replications. The results showed that the seeds are orthodox behavior, remaining viable for six months when stored in cold and room temperature, regardless of packaging, if they are wrapped in airtight packaging.

 URL:

http://www.cabdirect.org/abstracts/20103054823.html

 69.

Authors:

Reddy, D. Harikishore Kumar
Seshaiah, K.
Reddy, A. V. R.
Rao, M. Madhava
Wang, M. C

 Title:

Biosorption of Pb2+ from aqueous solutions by Moringa oleifera bark: Equilibrium and kinetic studies

 Publication:

JOURNAL OF HAZARDOUS MATERIALS

 Abstract:

Biosorption of Pb2+ from aqueous solution by biomass prepared from Moringa oleifera bark (MOB), an agricultural solid waste has been studied. Parameters that influence the biosorption such as pH, biosorbent dose, contact time and concentration of metal ion were investigated. The experimental equilibrium adsorption data were tested by four widely used two-parameter equations, the Langmuir, Freundlich, Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) and Temkin isotherms. Results indicated that the data of Pb2+ adsorption onto MOB were best fit by the Freundlich model. The adsorption capacity (Q(m)) calculated from the Langmuir isotherm was 34.6 mg Pb2+ g(-1) at an initial pH of 5.0. Adsorption kinetics data were analyzed using the pseudo-first-, pseudo-second-order equations and intraparticle diffusion models. The results indicated that the adsorption kinetic data were best described by pseudo-second-order model. Infrared (IR) spectral analysis revealed that the lead ions were chelated to hydroxyl and/or carboxyl functional groups present on the surface of MOB. Biosorbent was effective in removing lead in the presence of common metal ions like Na+, K+, Ca2+ and Mg2+ present in water. Desorption studies were carried out with dilute hydrochloric acid for quantitative recovery of the metal ion as well as to regenerate the adsorbent. Based on the results obtained such as good uptake capacity, rapid kinetics, and its low cost, M. oleifera bark appears to be a promising biosorbent material for the removal of heavy metal ions from wastewater/effluents.

 URL:

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0304389409015891

 70.

Authors:

Salcedo Vieira, Angelica Marquetotti
Vieira, Marcelo F.
Silva, Gabriel F.
Araujo, Alvaro A.
Fagundes-Klen, Marcia R.
Veit, Marcia T.
Bergamasco, Rosangela

 Title:

Use of Moringa oleifera Seed as a Natural Adsorbent for Wastewater Treatment

 Publication:

WATERAIRANDSOIL POLLUTION

 Abstract:

Moringa oleifera (MO) is a multipurpose, medium- or small-sized tree, from regions of north-westIndiaand indigenous to many parts ofAsia,Africa, andSouth America. Its pods have been employed as an inexpensive and effective sorbent for the removal of organics, and coagulant for water treatment. It is a non-toxic natural organic polymer. The main objective of this work was to use the MO seeds as a natural adsorbent for the treatment of dairy industry wastewater (DIW). The effects of agitation time, pH, MO biomass dose, and DIW concentration were evaluated. Removal efficiencies of up to 98%, for both color and turbidity, were reached using 0.2 g MO and 0.2 L of 1.0 g/L sorbate solution (DIW). The obtained results showed that MO seed keeps its adsorption power under a pH range between 5 and 8. The adsorption data was fitted to Langmuir isotherm. There was a significant uptake capacity of MO biomass, q (max), which suggested a good affinity between DIW components and sorbent. We conclude that the MO biomass has the potential to be used in the dairy industry wastewater treatment in an efficient way and with low cost.

 URL:

http://www.springerlink.com/content/n635342674016626/

 71.

Authors:

Garcia, D. E.
Medina, M. G.
Cova, L. J.
Clavero, T.
Torres, A.
Perdomo, D.
Santos, O.

 Title:

Integral evaluation of fodder resources for ruminants inTrujillostate,Venezuela

 Publication:

REVISTA DE LA FACULTAD DE AGRONOMIA DE LA UNIVERSIDADDELZULIA

 Abstract:

By using a multivariate analysis and hierarchical index determination the fodder potential of twelve species (Chlorophora tinctoria, Morus alba, Pithecellobium pedicellare, Gliricidia sepium, Guazuma ulmifolia, Cordia alba, Trichantera gigantea, Tithonia diversifolia, Leucaena leucocephala, Moringa oleifera, Azadirachta indica and Samanea saman) in dry tropical forest area, Trujillo state, Venezuela were studied. The behavior of woody species in nursery conditions, establishment and relative acceptability by ovine, goats and cattle was evaluated in experiment 1. However, edible biomass production, chemical composition, rumen degradability and relative acceptability in confinement condition were determined in experiment 2. A high variability for the first three components (97.71%) was detected. The transplant height, growth rate, the final survival in establishment, the biomass production, NDF total terpenoids content and cattle, sheep and goat acceptability in confinement and grazing conditions were the most relevant variables. Using the automatic classification analysis and fodder potential index M. alba, C. tinctoria, G. ulmifolia, P. pedicellare, L. leucocephala and C. alba showed better results. The rest of species showed little relevance as fodder.

URL:

http://www.cabdirect.org/abstracts/20103087946.html

 72.

Authors:

Coppin, Julia P.
Xu, Yanping
Chen, Hong
Juliani, Rodolfo
Wu, Qing-Li
Simon, James E.

 Title:

AGFD 147-Determination of flavonoids in Moringa oleifera by LC/UV/MSD

 Publication:

ABSTRACTS OF PAPERS OF THE AMERICAN CHEMICAL SOCIETY

Abstract:

No abstract

 URL:

No URL

73.

Authors:

Mahajan, Shailaja G.
Banerjee, Aryamitra
Chauhan, Bhupendrasinh F.
Padh, Harish
Nivsarkar, Manish
Mehta, Anita A.

 Title:

Inhibitory Effect of n-butanol Fraction of Moringa oleifera Lam. Seeds on Ovalbumin-Induced Airway Inflammation in a Guinea Pig Model of Asthma

 Publication:

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF TOXICOLOGY

 Abstract:

Moringaceae, which belongs to the Moringa oleifera Lam. family, is a well-known herb used in Asian medicine as an antiallergic drug. In the present study, the efficacy of the n-butanol extract of the seeds of the plant (MONB) is examined against ovalbumin-induced airway inflammation in guinea pigs. The test drugs (MONB or dexamethasone) are administered orally prior to challenge with aerosolized 0.5% ovalbumin. During the experimental period, bronchoconstriction tests are performed, and lung function parameters are measured. The blood and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid are collected to assess cellular content, and serum is used for cytokine (tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-4, and interleukin-6) assays. Histamine assays of lung tissue are performed using lung tissue homogenate. The results suggest that in ovalbumin-sensitized model control animals, tidal volume is decreased, respiration rate is increased, and both the total and differential cell counts in blood and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid are increased significantly compared with nonsensitized controls. MONB treatment shows improvement in all parameters except bronchoalveolar lavage tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-4. Moreover, MONB treatment demonstrates protection against acetylcholine-induced bronchoconstriction and airway inflammation. These results indicate that MONB has an inhibitory effect on airway inflammation. Thus, MONB possesses an antiasthmatic property through modulation of the relationship between Th1/Th2 cytokine imbalances.

 URL:

http://ijt.sagepub.com/content/28/6/519.full

 74.

Authors:

Sreelatha, S.
Padma, P. R.

 Title:

Antioxidant Activity and Total Phenolic Content of Moringa oleifera Leaves in Two Stages of Maturity

 Publication:

PLANT FOODS FOR HUMAN NUTRITION

 Abstract:

Antioxidants play an important role in inhibiting and scavenging free radicals, thus providing protection to human against infections and degenerative diseases. Current research is now directed towards natural antioxidants originated from plants due to safe therapeutics. Moringa oleifera is used in Indian traditional medicine for a wide range of various ailments. To understand the mechanism of pharmacological actions, antioxidant properties of the Moringa oleifera leaf extracts were tested in two stages of maturity using standard in vitro models. The successive aqueous extract of Moringa oleifera exhibited strong scavenging effect on 2, 2-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) free radical, superoxide, nitric oxide radical and inhibition of lipid per oxidation. The free radical scavenging effect of Moringa oleifera leaf extract was comparable with that of the reference antioxidants. The data obtained in the present study suggests that the extracts of Moringa oleifera both mature and tender leaves have potent antioxidant activity against free radicals, prevent oxidative damage to major biomolecules and afford significant protection against oxidative damage.

 URL:

http://www.springerlink.com/content/j01067296822v5p5/

 75.

Authors:

Rahman, Ismail M. M.
Barua, Suman
Nazimuddin, M.
Begum, Zinnat A.
Rahman, M. Azizur
Hasegawa, Hiroshi

 Title:

PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF MORINGA OLEIFERA LAM. SEED OIL OF THE INDIGENOUS-CULTIVAR OFBANGLADESH

 Publication:

JOURNAL OF FOOD LIPIDS

 Abstract:

Moringa oleifera Lam. seed oil of the indigenous-cultivar of Bangladeshwas extracted using n-hexane (H), light petroleum ether (LPE) (bp 40-60C) and chloroform/methanol (50:50, v/v) mixture (CM). The oil content ranged from 37.50 (H) to 40.20% (CM). The moisture, protein, ash and crude fiber contents of seed residues, and the density, refractive index, color, acidity, saponification value, iodine value, unsaponifiable matter content, oxidative state, sterols, tocopherols and fatty acid composition of the extracted oil were determined. The oil contained a high amount of oleic acid (C-18:1) of up to 74.41% and a high ratio of monounsaturated to saturated fatty acids with moderate oxidative stability. The results of the present study were compared with those reported in literature for different regional habitats and species variants.
PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS
A high-oleic oil with a good potential for edible and industrial use can be produced from Moringa oleifera Lam. (M. oleifera) oilseeds of the indigenous cultivar ofBangladesh. Thus, mature seeds of M. oleifera can be considered as an alternative source of vegetable oil inBangladesh provided that it is cultivated on a large scale.

 URL:

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1745-4522.2009.01165.x/abstract

 76.

Authors:

Anastasakis, Konstantinos
Kalderis, Dimitrios
Diamadopoulos, Evan

 Title:

Flocculation behavior of mallow and okra mucilage in treating wastewater

 Publication:

DESALINATION

Abstract:

In this study, the flocculant behavior of Malva sylvestris (mallow) and Hibiscus esculentus (okra) mucilages was assessed for the removal of turbidity from synthetic and biologically-treated effluent. A series of flocculation experiments were conducted to assess the optimal concentration of each species. Aluminum salts were used as coagulants. The results showed that mallow and okra mucilage have significant flocculation properties. It was determined that okra was as efficient as mallow in removing turbidity. at at higher dosages theDOCof both synthetic wastewater and effluent increased. However much lower doses,. probably due to the organic substances present in the okra and mallow mucilage.

 URL:

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science

 77.

Authors:

Coelho, Juliene S.
Santos, Nataly D. L.
Napoleao, Thiago H.
Gomes, Francis S.
Ferreira, Rodrigo S.
Zingali, Russolina B.
Coelho, Luana C. B. B.
Leite, Sonia P.
Navarro, Daniela M. A. F.
Paiva, Patricia M. G.

 Title:

Effect of Moringa oleifera lectin on development and mortality of Aedes aegypti larvae

 Publication:

CHEMOSPHERE

 Abstract:

Aedes aegypti larvae have developed tolerance to many insecticides used for mosquito control. Moringa oleifera seeds contain a water-soluble lectin (WSMoL) and this paper reports the effect of M. oleifera seed extracts (MoE1-15) and WSMoL on development and survival of A. aegypti larvae. WSMoL peptide from in-gel trypsin digestion is also described. MoE1-15 showed hemagglutinating activity and WSMoL had similarity with flocculating proteins from M. oleifera seeds. MoE, and MoE3 delayed larval development which stopped in the third instar (L3) in MoE6 and MoE15. Significant (p < 0.0001) larval mortality was only detected in MoE15. Native WSMol. showed larvicidal activity (LC50 0.197 mg mL(-1)) and heated lectin, without hemagglutinating activity, did not kill fourth instar (L4) larvae. Optical microscopy showed that live L4 from WE, presented underlying epithelium, increased gut lumen and hypertrophic segments; dead L4 from WSMoL were absent of underlying epithelium, had increased gut lumen and hypertrophic segments. The presence of hemagglutinating activity in the extracts suggests that soluble lectin promotes the delay of larval development and mortality; furthermore, the absence of larvicidal activity in heat-denatured WSMoL strengthens the involvement of lectin in this activity mechanism.

 URL:

No URL

 78.

Authors:

Kundu, M.

 Title:

Effect of seed maturity on germination and desiccation tolerance of Moringa oleifera seed

 Publication:

SEED SCIENCEANDTECHNOLOGY

 Abstract:

The effect of seed maturity on germinability and desiccation tolerance of seeds of Moringa oleifera was evaluated. The seeds were harvested at different stages of development to determine fresh and city mass, moisture content, germination of fresh seeds and desiccation tolerance. Seed moisture content declined as the seeds developed from about 98% at 14 DAA to about 4% at 90 DAA, whereas fresh and dry mass increased to maximum level at 70 DAA, when the seed moisture content is about 70%. Therefore, the seeds attained mass maturity at 70 DAA. The onset of germinability of freshly collected seeds Occurred at 65 DAA, i.e. 5 days, before mass maturity. Full germination was achieved at 77 DAA: i.e. 7 days after mass maturity. No seeds could germinate before 65 DAA. Desiccation improved germination in all stages of development from 65 DAA onwards reaching maximum at mass maturity. Full germinability and desiccation tolerance was achieved by the seeds at 77 DAA at which time seed moisture content was about 65%. Seeds can be harvested at this stage of development and maximum quality can be gained by drying them over silica gel.

 URL:

http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/ista/sst/2009/00000037/00000003/art00008

 79.

Authors:

Bina, B.
Mehdinejad, M. H.
Nikaeen, M.
Attar, H. Movahedian

 Title:

EFFECTIVENESS OF CHITOSAN AS NATURAL COAGULANT AID IN TREATING TURBID WATERS

 Publication:

IRANIAN JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH SCIENCE & ENGINEERING

 Abstract:

During the last decade, there has been a concern about the relation between aluminum residuals in treated water and Alzheimer disease, and more interest has been considered on the development of natural coagulants such as chitosan. Chitosan, a natural linear biopolyaminosaccharide, is obtained by alkaline deacetylation of chitin. The present study was aimed to investigate the effects of alum as coagulant in conjunction with chitosan as coagulant aid on the removal of turbidity, hardness and Escherichia coli from water. A conventional jar test apparatus was employed for the tests. The optimum pH was observed between 7 to 7.5 for all turbidities. The optimum doses of alum and chitosan when used in conjunction, were 10mg/L and 1mg/L, 5mg/L and 0.5mg/L, and 5mg/L and 0.5mg/L in low, medium and high turbidities, respectively. Turbidity removal efficiency was resulted between %74.3 to %98.2 by alum in conjunction with chitosan. Residual Al+3 in treated water was less than 0.2 mg/L, meeting the international guidelines. The results showed that turbidity decrease provided also a primary Escherichia coli reduction of 2-4 log units within the first 1 to 2 hr of treatment. Hardness removal efficiency decreased when the total hardness increased from 102 to 476mg/L as CaCO3. At low initial turbidity, chitosan showed marginally better performance on hardness, especially at the ranges of 100 to 210 mg/L as CaCO3. In conclusion, coagulant aid showed a useful method for coagulation process. By using natural coagulants, considerable savings in chemicals and sludge handling cost may be achieved.

 

URL:

http://journals.tums.ac.ir/abs.aspx?org_id=59&culture_var=en&journal_id=13&issue_id=1711&manuscript_id=14527&segment=en

 80.

Authors:

Mendieta-Araica, B.
Sporndly, E.
Reyes-Sanchez, N.
Norell, L.
Sporndly, R.

 Title:

Silage quality when Moringa oleifera is ensiled in mixtures with Elephant grass, sugar cane and molasses

 Publication:

GRASS ANDFORAGE SCIENCE

Abstract:

Fourteen different silages were prepared using mixtures of Moringa (Moringa oleifera), Elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum cvTaiwan) or sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum). Molasses from sugar cane was used in the amounts of either 10 or 50 g kg-1 fresh matter (FM) in treatments without sugar cane. A completely randomized design with three replicates of each treatment was used. The silages were prepared in 1800 mL micro silos and opened after 120 d. The presence of Moringa and Elephant grass in the silage changed the pH by -0 center dot 8 and +0 center dot 7, respectively (P < 0 center dot 001), indicating a favourable effect of Moringa on silage pH. Overall differences were found among treatments for dry matter content, crude protein and acetic acid concentrations, weight loss, CO2 production and silage pH after spoilage (P < 0 center dot 001). Weight loss was proportionately 0 center dot 034 and 0 center dot 014 in silages with and without sugar cane respectively (P < 0 center dot 001). Overall, differences (P < 0 center dot 05) were also found for neutral-detergent fibre and lactic acid concentrations, lactic acid bacteria counts, clostridial counts and time to spoilage of the silages. Treatments containing Moringa had higher lactic acid concentrations (+16 g kg-1 DM; P < 0 center dot 01) compared to treatments without but the presence of Moringa decreased time to spoilage by 67 h (P < 0 center dot 05). No differences were found in propionic acid concentration or fungal growth of the silages. It is concluded that Moringa can be used as a component of high quality silages which also contain high concentrations of crude protein.

 URL:

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1365-2494.2009.00701.x/abstract

81.

 Authors:

Wai, Kien Tat
Idris, Azni
Johari, Megat Mohd Noor Megat
Mohammad, Thamer A.
Ghazali, Abdul Halim
Muyibi, Suleyman A.

Title:

Evaluation on different forms of Moringa oleifera seeds dosing on sewage sludge conditioning

Publication:

DESALINATION ANDWATER TREATMENT

Abstract:

The effect of different form of dosing using Morin,,,a oleifera seeds in sewage sludge conditioning was studied. Settled activated sludge after clarification process was obtained from sludge holding tank in Sewage Treatment Plant, Taman Tun Dr. Ismail, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. In this study, sludge conditioning with Moringa oleifera seeds in 3 different forms: dry powder, distilled water extracted and salt extracted (1 N NaCl) – were studied in comparison with chemical polymer, Zetag 7653. The study applied operator’s specification, Indah Water Konsortium Sdn. Bhd., Malaysia (IWK) with preparation of Moringa oleifera in water and salt stock solution and Zetag 7653 stock solution were done at 650 rpm for 1 h. Sludge conditioning was then operated at 60 rpm for 45 min using jar test apparatus. Using specific resistance to filtration (SRF) as a parameter, Moringa oleifera in dry powder form at dosage of 2000 mg/L was comparable to 50 mg/L Zetag 7653 in reducing the value from 8.0×10(10) to 3.3×10(10) m/kg (2.5 times of magnitude). Therefore, Moringa oleifera in dry powder form was as effective as Zetag 7653. There was no significant change in CST between the three methods of extraction for Moringa oleifera. Without applying filtration using muslin cloth, Sludge solid content when dosed with Moringa oleifera in distilled water extracted form showed the least increment at 17.08%.

URL:

http://74.125.155.132/scholar?q=cache:

77McKGxRBjoJ:scholar.google.com/+Evaluation+on+different+forms+of+Moringa+oleifera+seeds+dosing+in+sewage+sludge+conditioning&hl=en&as_sdt=0,5

 82.

Authors:

Jeon, Jong-Rok
Kim, Eun-Ju
Kim, Young-Mo
Murugesan, Kumarasamy
Kim, Jae-Hwan
Chang, Yoon-Seok

Title:

Use of grape seed and its natural polyphenol extracts as a natural organic coagulant for removal of cationic dyes

Publication:

CHEMOSPHERE

Abstract:

Natural organic coagulants (NOCs) such as chitosan and Moringa oleifera seeds have been extensively characterized for potential application in water treatment as an alternative to metal-based coagulants. However, the action of both chitosan and M. oleifera seeds is mainly restricted to anionic organic pollutants because of their cationic functional groups affording poor cationic pollutant coagulation by electrostatic repulsion. In this study, we employed ethanolic grape seed extract (GSE) and grape seed-derived polyphenols such as tannic acid and catechin in an effort to find novel NOCs showing stable anionic forms for removal of cationic organic pollutants. The target substances tested were malachite green (MG) and crystal violet (CV), both mutagenic cationic dyes. Polyphenol treatment induced fast decolorization followed by gradual floc formation concomitant with red or blue shifts in maximum absorbance wavelengths of the cationic dyes. Liquid chromatography analysis of flocs formed by polyphenols directly showed that initial supramolecular complexes attributed mainly to electrostatic attraction between polyphenol hydroxyphenyl groups and cationic dyes further progressed into stronger aggregates, leading to precipitation of dye-polyphenol complexes. Consistent with the results obtained using catechin and tannic acid, use ofGSEalso resulted in effective decolorization and coagulation of soluble MG and CV in aqueous solutions. Screening of several organicGSEcomponents forNOCactivity strongly suggested that natural polyphenols are the main organic ingredients causing MG and CV removal via gradual floc formation. The treatment by natural polyphenols andGSEdecreased toxicity of MG- or CV-contaminated water.

URL:

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science

 83.

Authors:

Beltran-Heredia, J.
Sanchez-Martin, J.
Delgado-Regalado, A.

Title:

Removal of dyes by Moringa oleifera seed extract. Study through response surface methodology

Publication:

JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY ANDBIOTECHNOLOGY

Abstract:

BACKGROUND: The effect of pH and initial dye concentration (IDC) on dye removal by coagulation/flocculation process with Moringa oleifera seed extract has been studied. The study was carried out by using the response surface methodology (RSM) in an orthogonal and rotatable design of experiments. Three types of dye were studied: anthraquinonic (Alizarin Violet 3R); indigoid (indigo Carmine); and azoic (Palatine Fast Black WAN).

URL:

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/jctb.2225/full

 84.

Authors:

Ranjan, R.
Swarup, D.
Patra, R. C.
Chandra, Vikas

Title:

Tamarindus indica L. and Moringa oleifera M. extract administration ameliorates fluoride toxicity in rabbits

Publication:

INDIAN JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL BIOLOGY

Abstract:

Aqueous extracts of T indica fruit pulp (100 mg/ kg body weight) and M oleifera seeds (50 mg/ kg body weight) orally once daily for 90 days lowered plasma fluoride concentrations in rabbits receiving fluorinated drinking water (200 mg NaF/ Liter water). Cortical indices and metaphysial width in animals receiving extracts also revealed beneficial effects of plant extracts. Changes in plasma biochemistry suggested less hepatic and renal damages in animals receiving plant extracts along with fluorinated water in comparison to that receiving fluorinated water alone. Preliminary results revealed these plant extracts have some potential to mitigate fluoride toxicity.

URL:

http://nopr.niscair.res.in/handle/123456789/6532

 85.

Authors:

Alves de Oliveira, Francisco Ronaldo
de Oliveira, Francisco de Assis
Guimaraes, Isaias Porfirio
de Medeiros, Jose Francismar
Teixeira de Oliveira, Mychelle Karla
Lacerda de Freitas, Ana Valeria
de Medeiros, Maria Aparecida

Title:

EMERGENCY OF SEEDLINGS OF MORINGA OLEIFERA LAM IRRIGATED WITH WATER OF DIFFERENT LEVELS OF SALINITY

Publication:

BIOSCIENCE JOURNAL

Abstract:

The jug is presented as a plant of great importance for the northeastern population, however, are few studies on this plant. This study was to evaluate the effect of different levels of salinity of irrigation water on seedling emergence of this species. The design was completely randomized in a factorial scheme 2 x 6, the first factor consists of two conditions of seeds ( with and without tegument), and the second of six levels of salinity of irrigation water ( 0.0; 1.0; 2.0; 3.0; 4.0 and 5.0 dS m(-1)) with four replications. The variables were the percentage and emergence velocity index, height, number of leaves, leaf area and total dry matter weight of seedlings. The jug comes as mediating a plant tolerant to salinity and may well emerge in salinity up to 3.0 dS m(-1). The removal of the tegument has not increased the percentage and emergence speed index. The features most affected by salinity were the leaf area and dry matter accumulation, regardless of the presence or absence of the tegument, the effect being more pronounced in seeds without tegument. Withdrawal of the integument of the seed reduced the tolerance of seedling the salinity of irrigation water.

URL:

http://www.cabdirect.org/abstracts/20093334893.html

 86.

Authors:

Jha, Nidhi
Mohanka, Reena
Azad, Rani

Title:

Antifungal Investigation of the Constituents of Moringa oleifera lamk. Root Bark Extract

Publication:

ASIAN JOURNAL OF CHEMISTRY

Abstract:

Antifungal activity of Moringa oleifera root bark extract was treated against Aspergillus nigerand Neurospora crassa. Per cent mycelial inhibition of aqueous, methanolic and ethanolic extract were determined. Significant inhibition especially of ethanolic extract was seen against Neurospora. Comparatively the extracts were less inhibitory against Aspergillus sps.

URL:

No URL

87.

Authors:

Bhatti, Zulfiqar Ahmad
Mahmood, Qaisar
Raja, Iftikhar Ahmad

Title:

Sewage Water Pollutants Removal Efficiency Correlates to the Concentration Gradient of Amendments

Publication:

JOURNAL OF THE CHEMICAL SOCIETY OF PAKISTAN

Abstract:

Three coagulants viz. alum, FeCl3 and Moringa oleifera seed extract were compared for treating municipal wastewater. The wastewater samples were collected from a drain near the Murree Roadin Abbottabad city. The initial treatment depicted that alum was a suitable coagulant, while the other two caused color development and increased chemical oxygen demand in the effluent. Subsequently, wastewater samples were treated with graded concentrations (4 similar to 32 mg-L-1) of alum in batch series, and shacked at 600-620 rpm for five minutes. The treated samples were analyzed for various water quality parameters to examine the effective coagulation and flocculation process in the wastewater. There was an increase in TDSand electrical conductivity with the increasing levels of alum above the optimized values (22 to 30 mg L-1). The proposed primary treatment strategy of wastewater treatment with alum is suitable for reducing the pollutants load in the sewer system.

URL:

http://jcsp.org.pk/index.php/jcsp/article/view/71

 88.

Authors:

Pritchard, M.
Mkandawire, T.
Edmondson, A.
O’Neill, J. G.
Kululanga, G.

Title:

Potential of using plant extracts for purification of shallow well water in Malawi

Publication:

PHYSICS ANDCHEMISTRY OF THE EARTH

Abstract:

There has been very little scientific research work into the use of plant extracts to purify groundwater. Research studies on the purification of groundwater have mainly been carried out in developed countries and have focused on water purification systems using aluminium sulphate (a coagulant) and chlorine (a disinfectant). Such systems are expensive and not viable for rural communities due to abject poverty. Shallow well water, which is commonly available throughout Africa, is often grossly contaminated and usually consumed untreated. As a result, water-related diseases kill more than 5 million people every year worldwide. This research was aimed at examining natural plant extracts in order to develop inexpensive ways for rural communities to purify their groundwater.
The study involved creating an inventory of plant extracts that have been used for water and wastewater purification. A prioritisation system was derived to select the most suitable extracts, which took into account criteria such as availability, purification potential. yield and cost of extraction. Laboratory trials were undertaken on the most promising plant extracts, namely: Moringa oleifera, Jatropha curcas and Guar gum. The extracts were added to water samples obtained from five shallow wells in Malawi. The trials consisted of jar tests to assess the coagulation potential and the resulting effect on physico-chemical and microbiological parameters such as temperature, pH, turbidity and coliforms. The results showed that the addition of M. oleifera, J. curcas and Guar gum can considerably improve the quality of shallow well water. Turbidity reduction was higher for more turbid water. A reduction efficiency exceeding 90% was achieved by all three extracts on shallow well water that had a turbidity of 49 NTU. A reduction in coliforms was about 80% for all extracts. The pH of the water samples increased with dosage, but remained within acceptable levels for drinking water for all the extracts. Overall, M. oleifera powder produced superior results, followed by Guar gum and lastly J. curcas. There is a need to carry out further more detailed tests, which include toxicity to guarantee the safety of using plant extracts as a coagulant in the purification of drinking water for human consumption.

URL:

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science

 89.

Authors:

Etuk, E. U.
Mohammed, B. J.

Title:

Informant consensus selection method: A reliability assessment on medicinal plants used in north western Nigeriafor the treatment of diabetes mellitus

Publication:

AFRICAN JOURNAL OF PHARMACY ANDPHARMACOLOGY

Abstract:

In this study, the reliability of informant consensus as a method of selecting medicinal plants for pharmacological screening was tested. Ten plants were selected based on the method and screened for antidiabetic properties using animal experimental model of the disease. The plants were selected from a list of medicinal plants obtained from a botanical survey of the region. A correlation between the two sets of data (Informant vs Experimental ranking orders) was examined. The results show that all the extracts of the selected plants (200 mg/kg) exhibited various degrees of blood glucose lowering activity. Vernonia amygdalina (67%), Calotropis procera (59%), Cassia gorotensis (53%) and Magnifera indica (35%) extracts produced a significant (P < 0.0.5%) reduction in blood glucose levels in diabetic rats while Angeissus leiocarpus (30%), Cassia arereh (19%), Gossypium hirsutum (17%), Khaya senegalensis (4%), Senna occidentalis (4%) and Moringa oleifera (4%) produced a non significant ( P < 0.05%) effect. V. amygdalina was ranked highest both by the informant consensus and biological evaluation. There was a significant correlation (Rs = 0.8897) between the two sets of data. The study concluded that, informant consensus is a reliable method of selecting medicinal plant for pharmacological evaluation.

URL:

http://www.acadjourn.org/AJPP/PDF/%20pdf2009/October/Etuk%20and%20Mohammed.pdf

 90.

Authors:

Prasuna, C. P. Lakshmi
Chakradhar, R. P. S.
Rao, J. L.
Gopal, N. O.

Title:

EPRand IR spectral investigations on some leafy vegetables of Indian origin

Publication:

SPECTROCHIMICA ACTA PART A-MOLECULAR ANDBIOMOLECULAR SPECTROSCOPY

Abstract:

EPRspectral investigations have been carried out on four edible leafy vegetables of India, which are used as dietary component in day to day life. In Rumex vesicarius leaf sample, EPRspectral investigations at different temperatures indicate the presence of anti-ferromagnetically coupled Mn(IV)-Mn([V) complexes. EPRspectra of Trigonella foenum graecum show the presence of Mn ions in multivalent state and Fe3+ ions in rhombic symmetry. EPRspectra of Basella rubra indicate the presence of Mn(IV)-O-Mn(IV) type complexes. The EPRspectra of Basella rubra have been studied at different temperatures. It is found that the spin population for the resonance signal at g = 2.06 obeys the Boltzmann distribution law. The EPRspectra of Moringa oliefera leaves show the presence of Mn2+ ions. Radiation induced changes in free radical of this sample have also been studied. The FT-IR spectra of Basella rubra and Moringa oliefera leaves show the evidences for the protein matrix bands and those corresponding to carboxylic C=O bonds. (C) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

URL:

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science

 91.

Authors:

Sciban, Marina
Klasnja, Mile
Antov, Mirjana
Skrbic, Biljana

Title:

Removal of water turbidity by natural coagulants obtained from chestnut and acorn

Publication:

BIORESOURCE TECHNOLOGY

Abstract:

The ability of seed extracts of several species of chestnut and acorn to act as natural coagulants was tested using a synthetic turbid water. Active components were extracted from ground seeds of Horse chestnut and acorns of some species of family Fagaceae: Common oak, Turkeyoak, Northern red oak and European chestnut. All investigated extracts had coagulation capabilities and their amounts depended on pH values and initial turbidities. The seed extracts from European chestnut and Common oak acorn were the most efficient expressing the highest coagulation activities, about 80% and 70%. respectively, in both low and medium investigated water turbidities at the lowest coagulant dose 0.5 ml/L. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

URL:

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science

 92.

Authors:

Yongabi, K. A.
Mbacham, W. F.
Nubia, K. K.
Singh, R. M.

Title:

Yeast strains isolated from HIV-seropositive patients in Cameroonand their sensitivity to extracts of eight medicinal plants

Publication:

AFRICAN JOURNAL OF MICROBIOLOGY RESEARCH

Abstract:

A total of 530 HIV-seropositive patients, undergoing treatment at the Phytobiotechnology Research Foundation (PRF) Clinic from May 2007 to May 2008, were screened for yeast infection using various specimens. Of the total number of patients, 318 were females and 212 were males. The specimens comprised 550 stools specimens, 422 oral swabs, 98 sputum specimens, 60 vaginal swabs and 25 urine specimens. These were aerobically cultured on Sabouraud dextrose and potato dextrose agar media. A total of 79.6% of the patients indicated presence of yeast in oral specimens, while 28.3% indicated the presence of yeasts in stool specimens. Candida albicans was the sole isolate from urine and vaginal swabs. Geotrichium candidum was solely isolated from stool specimens (18.75%), while Cryptococcus neoformans (5%) was also isolated from sputum specimens. Bulk methanol extracts of Magnifera indica (mango) seeds, Aspilia africana (African iodine) leaves, Ageratum conyzoides (goat weed/king grass) leaves, Allium sativum (garlic) bulb, Vernonia amygdalina (bitter leaves), Khaya senegalensis (drywood mahogany) seeds, Moringa oleifera (drum stick/horseradish) and Persea americana (avocado) seeds exhibited appreciable growth inhibition of Candida spp. and Geotrichium spp. The results indicated that yeast infections are prevalent in HIV/AIDS patients and can be controlled with natural products.

URL:

http://www.acadjourn.org/AJMR/PDF/Pdf2009/Apr/Yongabi%20%20et%20al%202.pdf

 93.

Authors:

Oluduro, A. O.
Aderiye, B. I.

Title:

Effect of Moringa oleifera seed extract on vital organs and tissue enzymes activities of male albino rats

Publication:

AFRICAN JOURNAL OF MICROBIOLOGY RESEARCH

Abstract:

The effect of various doses of aqueous extract of Moringa oleifera seed on the activities of some internal organs (heart, liver and kidney) and tissue enzymes of male albino rats was investigated. The safe level of the seed extract that would not cause an infarction in the liver of albino rat was less than 2 mg/ml concentration. Daily-dose administration of the Moringa seed treated water (1 – 10 mg/ml) to different rat groups for 21 days resulted in significant increase (P > 0.05) in the activities of the following enzymes; aspartate aminotransferase (AST) (162 U/ml), alanine transferase (ALT) (65.32 U/ml), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) (303 U/ml), acid phosphatase (ACP)(499 U/ml) in the serum of the experimental rats compared to a corresponding decreased enzyme activity (AST-131.87 U/ml), (ALT-26.3l U/ml), (ALP-178 U/ml), (ACP-68.48 U/ml) in the liver tissue. Histopathological studies revealed the presence of marked aggregation of bile canaliculi around the portal vein of the liver.

URL:

http://www.academicjournals.org/ajmr/PDF/Pdf2009/Sep/Oluduro%20and%20Aderiye.pdf

 94.

Authors:

Sinha, Shipra
Masto, R. E.
Ram, L. C.
Selvi, V. A.
Srivastava, N. K.
Tripathi, R. C.
George, Joshy

Title:

Rhizosphere soil microbial index of tree species in a coal mining ecosystem

Publication:

SOIL BIOLOGY & BIOCHEMISTRY

Abstract:

Microbial characterization of the tree rhizosphere provides important information relating to the screening of tree species for re-vegetation of degraded land. Rhizosphere soil samples collected from a few predominant tree species growing in the coal mining ecosystem of Dhanbad, India, were analyzed for soil organic carbon (SOC), mineralizable N, microbial biomass carbon (MBC) active microbial biomass carbon (AMBC), basal soil respiration (BSR), and soil enzyme activities (dehydrogenase, urease, catalase, phenol oxidase, and peroxidase). Among the tree species studied, Aegle marmelos recorded the highest value for MBC (590 mg kg(-1)), urease (190.5 mu g NH4+-N g(-1) h(-1)), catalase (513 mu g H2O2 g(-1) h(-1)), dehydrogenase (92.3 mu g TPF g(-1) h(-1)), phenol oxiclase (0.057 mu M g(-1) h(-1)) and BSR/AMBC (0.498 mg CO2-C mg biomass(-1) day(-1)); Tamarindus indica for mineralizable N (69.5 mg kg(-1)); Morus alba for catalase (513 mu g H2O2 g(-1) h(-1)) and phenol oxiclase (0.058 mu M g(-1) h(-1)); Tectona grandis for peroxidase (0.276 mu M g(-1) h(-1)), AMBC/MBC (99.4%), and BSR/MBC (0.108 mg CO2-C mg biomass(-1) day(-1)); Ficus religiosa for AMBC (128.4 mg kg(-1)) and BSR (12.85 mg CO2-C kg(-1) day(-1)); Eugenia jambolana for MBC/SOC (8.03%); Butea monosoperma for AMBC/SOC (1.32%) and Azadirachta indica for BSR/AMBC (0.1134 mg CO2-C mg biomass(-1) day(-1)). Principal component analysis was employed to derive a rhizosphere soil microbial index (RSMI) and accordingly, dehydrogenase, BSR/MBC, MBC/SOC, EC, phenol oxidase and AMBC were found to be the most critical properties. The observed values for the above properties were converted into a unitless score (0-1.00) and the scores were integrated into RSMI. The tree species could be arranged in decreasing order of the RSMI as: A. marmelos (0.718), A. indica (0.715), Bauhinia bauhinia (0.693), B. monosperma (0.611), E. jambolana (0.601), Moringa oleifera (0.565), Dalbergia sissoo (0.498), T indica (0.488), Morus alba (0.415), F religiosa (0.291), Eucalyptus sp. (0.232) and T grandis (0.181). It was concluded that tree species in coal mining areas had diverse effects on their respective rhizosphere microbial processes, which could directly or indirectly determine the survival and performance of the planted tree species in degraded coal mining areas. Tree species with higher RSMI values could be recommended for re-vegetation of degraded coal mining area

URL:

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science

 95.

Authors:

Adesina, Babatunde Taiwo
Oguntuga, A. O.

Title:

Histopathological changes in the gills of freshwater fish, Oreochromis niloticus (L.) Juveniles exposed to Moringa oleifera (Lam.) fresh root-bark extract

Publication:

TOXICOLOGY LETTERS

Abstract:

No Abstract

URL:

No URL

96.

Authors:

Fuernkranz, M.
Mueller, H.
Berg, G.

Title:

Characterization of plant growth promoting bacteria from crops in Bolivia

Publication:

JOURNAL OF PLANT DISEASES ANDPROTECTION

Abstract:

The use of plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB) is an economically and environmental friendly alternative to the application of chemical fertilizers resp. pesticides in agriculture. To obtain novel bacterial strains that could be used for plant growth promotion (PGP) in the agriculture of Bolivia, plant associated bacteria derived from horseradish tree (Moringa oleifera), sorghum (Sorghum vulgare), sunflower (Helianthus annuus), and safflower (Carthamus tinctorius) were screened for direct and indirect in vitro PGP traits. Subsequently, most promising strains were selected for ad planta studies. According to in vitro experiments, out of 59 tested isolates, 19% were declared as diazotrophs, 41% as solubilizers of phosphorus, 10% were able to reduce the ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC), and 17% exhibited phytohormone (IAA) synthesis. Only a small proportion of rhizobacterial strains (7% out of 276) showed in vitro antagonism against plant pathogenic Colletotrichum sp., whereas none of isolated stem and leaf endophytes inhibited growth of Verticillium chlamydosporum or Bipolaris maydis in dual culture. Based on results of in vitro screens, the rhizospheric strains Pectobacterium cypripedii M56, Pantoea agglomerans M72, and P. agglomerans M81 were selected for ad planta applications. Results revealed significant increases in number of beans per black bean plant resp. diameters of flower heads of sunflower plants compared to controls by P. agglomerans M72. We conclude that the assessment and selection of plant associated bacteria based on traits conferring theoretically PGP can provide the basis for the development of new microbial inoculants for agricultural purposes.

URL:

http://www.cabdirect.org/abstracts/20093242791.html

 97.

Authors:

Suganthi, Umaya R.
Parvatham, R.

Title:

Efficacy of Moringa oleifera and Aloe vera on Aflatoxin B1-induced hepatotoxicity in rats

Publication:

RESEARCH JOURNAL OF BIOTECHNOLOGY

Abstract:

The aim of this work was to evaluate the protective effect of the plant products, Moringa oleifera leaf juice, drumstick pulp powder and Aloe vera gel against alflatoxin B1 induced hepatotoxicity in rats. AFB1 treatment at the dose of 50 mu g/kg BW in rats increased the levels of hepatic marker enzymes and lipid peroxidation. products and decreased the circulating antioxidants. Supplementation of Moringa oleifera leaf juice at doses 0.5 ml ml/kg BW and 1.0 ml/kg BW, drumstick pulp powder at doses 2g/kg BW and 3g/kg BW and Aloe vera gel at doses 0.5 ml ml/kg BW and 1.0 ml/kg BW along with AFB1 decreased the hepatic marker enzymes and lipid peroxidation products with a concomitant increase in the levels of antioxidants, vitamin C, vitamin E, beta-carotene and reduced glutathione. Furthermore, the hepatic marker enzymes, lipid peroxidation products and antioxidants in rats supplemented with Moringa oleifera leaf juice at the dose of 1.0 ml/kg BW, drumstick pulp powder at the dose of 3g/kg BW and Aloe vera gel at the dose of 1.0 ml/kg BW were oil par with that of controls fed the standard diet. The study shows that Moringa oleifera leaf juice, drumstick pulp powder and Aloe vera gel could provide protection against AFB1 induced hepatotoxicity in rats.

URL:

No url

98.

Authors:

Arabshahi-Delouee, Saeedeh
Aalami, Mehran
Urooj, Asna
Krishnakantha, T. P.

Title:

Moringa oleifera leaves as an inhibitor of human platelet aggregation

Publication:

PHARMACEUTICAL BIOLOGY

Abstract:

Moringa oleifera L. (Moringaceae) leaves were examined for their effect on human platelet aggregation in vitro. The aqueous extract of Moringa oleifera leaves significantly (p <= 0.05) inhibited platelet aggregation induced by agonists such as adenosine diphosphate, collagen, and epinephrine. The degree of inhibitory activity varied depending on the agonist used, concentration of extract and duration of incubating the extract with platelets. Heat treatment reduced the inhibitory activity of extract against platelet aggregation. In addition, the extracts significantly (p <= 0.05) decreased the amount of malonaldehyde formed in agonist challenged platelets. This study is the first report on the effect of aqueous extract of Moringa oleifera leaves against human platelet aggregation. Overall, Moringa oleifera leaves have potential to protect platelets against aggregation.

URL:

http://informahealthcare.com/doi/abs/10.1080/13880200902939275

 99.

Authors:

Verma, Arti R.
Vijayakumar, M.
Mathela, Chandra S.
Rao, Chandana V.

Title:

In vitro and in vivo antioxidant properties of different fractions of Moringa oleifera leaves

Publication:

FOOD ANDCHEMICAL TOXICOLOGY

Abstract:

The antioxidant potency of different fractions of Moringa oleifera leaves were investigated by employing various established in vitro systems, such as P-Carotene bleaching, reducing power, DPPH/superoxide/hydroxyl radical scavenging, ferrous ion chelation and lipid peroxidation. On the basis of in vitro antioxidant properties polyphenolic fraction of M. oleifera leaves (MOEF) was chosen as the potent fraction and used for the DNAnicking and in vivo antioxidant properties. MOEF shows concentration dependent protection of oxidative DNAdamage induced by HO center dot and also found to inhibit the toxicity produced by CCl4 administration as seen from the decreased lipid peroxides (LPO) and increased glutathione (GSH) levels. Among the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) levels were restored to almost normal levels compared to CCl4 intoxicated rats. The HPLC analysis indicated the presence of phenolic acids (gallic, chlorogenic, ellagic and ferulic acid) and flavonoids (kaempferol. quercetin and rutin). Thus, it may be concluded that the MOEF possess high phenolic content and potent antioxidant properties, which may be mediated through direct trapping of the free radicals and also through metal chelation.

URL:

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science

 100.

Authors:

Beltran-Heredia, J.
Sanchez-Martin, J.
Delgado-Regalado, A.
Jurado-Bustos, C.

Title:

Removal of Alizarin Violet 3R (anthraquinonic dye) from aqueous solutions by natural coagulants

Publication:

JOURNAL OF HAZARDOUS MATERIALS

Abstract:

In this paper the ability of two natural products in removing dyes has been tested. After a preliminary screening for dye removal capacity, a tannin-based coagulant called ACQUAPOL C-1 and a vegetal protein extract derived from Moringa oleifera seed have been fully studied. The influence of several parameters such as pH, temperature or initial dye concentration (IDC) have been tested and the behavior of both coagulants has been compared. pH results to be an interesting variable and dye removal decreases as pH increases. This effect is higher in ACQUAPOL C-1 than in M. oleifera seed extract. Temperature seems not to be so affecting parameter, while IDCappears to be a very important variable in q(c), capacity, which is higher as IDCincreases. Langmuir isotherm model fits very well in both cases of ACQUAPOL C-1 and M. oleifera seed extract dye removal.

URL:

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science

101.

Authors: Adedapo, A. A.
Mogbojuri, O. M.
Emikpe, B. O.

Title:

Safety evaluations of the aqueous extract of the leaves of Moringa oleifera in rats

Publication:

JOURNAL OF MEDICINAL PLANTS RESEARCH

Abstract:

The aqueous extract from the leaves of Moringa oleifera was evaluated for its oral toxicity by the oral route, and for the sub-acute toxicity on haematological, biochemical and histological parameters in rats. In the acute toxicity test, M. oleifera extract caused no death in animals even at 2000 mg/kg dose. Oral treatments in rats with this extract at 400, 800 and 1600 mg/kg caused varied significant changes in the total RBC, packed cell volume (PCV), haemoglobin percentage (HB), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC), total and differential WBC. The extract did not cause any significant change in the level of platelets. In the biochemical parameters, the extract at different doses also caused varied significant changes in the levels of total proteins, liver enzymes, and bilirubin. Clinico-pathologically, changes were also noted in the body weights, slight dullness at the onset of extract administration and no significant changes were noticed in all the organs examined in the course of this study. The study concluded that the plant is relatively safe both for nutritional and medicinal uses.

URL:

http://academicjournals.org/JMPR/PDF/pdf2009/Aug/Adedapo%20et%20al.pdf

 

102.

Authors:

Gupta, Suresh
Babu, B. V.

Title:

Utilization of waste product (tamarind seeds) for the removal of Cr(VI) from aqueous solutions: Equilibrium, kinetics, and regeneration studies

Publication:

JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT

Abstract:

In the present study, an adsorbent was prepared from tamarind seeds and used after activation for the removal of Cr(VI) from aqueous solutions. The tamarind seeds were activated by treating them with concentrated sulfuric acid (98% w/w) at a temperature of 150 degrees C. The adsorption of Cr(VI) was found to be maximum at low values of initial pH in the range of 1-3. The adsorption process of Cr(VI) was tested with Langmuir, Freundlich, Redlich-Peterson, Koble-Corrigan, Tempkin, Dubinin-Radushkevich and Generalized isotherm models. Application of the Langmuir isotherm to the system yielded a maximum adsorption capacity of 29.7 mg/g at an equilibrium pH value ranging from 1.12 to 1.46. The adsorption process followed second-order kinetics and the corresponding rate constants obtained were 2.605 x 10(-3), 0.818 X 10(-3), 0.557 x 10(-3) and 0.811 X 10(-3) g/mg min(-1) for 50, 200, 300 and 400 mg/L of initial Cr(VI) concentration, respectively. The regenerated activated tamarind seeds showed more than 95% Cr(VI) removal of that obtained using the fresh activated tamarind seeds. A feasible solution is proposed for the disposal of the contaminants (acid and base solutions) containing high concentrations of Cr(VI) obtained during the regeneration (desorption) process. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

URL:

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science

 

103.

Authors:

Luqman, Suaib
Kaushik, Shubhangi
Srivastava, Suchita
Kumar, Ritesh
Bawankule, D. U.
Pal, Anirban
Darokar, Mahendra P.
Khanuja, Suman P. S.

Title:

Protective effect of medicinal plant extracts on biomarkers of oxidative stress in erythrocytes

Publication:

PHARMACEUTICAL BIOLOGY

Abstract:

Plants are universally recognized as a vital part of the world’s natural heritage and up to 80% of the population rely on plants for their primary healthcare. Varieties of medicinal plants are recognized as a source of natural antioxidants that can protect from oxidative stress, thus playing an important role in chemoprevention of diseases. In the present investigation, 22 extracts from different parts of eight medicinal plants (Punica granatum Linn. (Punicaceae), Caesalpinia bonducella Flem. (Fabaceae), Hibiscus subdariffa Linn. [(Malvaceae), Moringa oleifera Lam. (Moringaceae), Garcinia indica Linn. (Clusiaceae), Emblica officinalis Gaertn. (Euphorbiaceae), Momordica charantia Linn. (Cucurbitaceae), and Matricaria chamomilla Linn. (Asteraceae)] were screened for their protection against oxidative stress in erythrocytes induced by hydrogen peroxide (2 mM) and tert-butyl hydroperoxide (0.01 mM). The effect was also compared with known antioxidants and flavonoids. Subjecting erythrocytes to oxidative stress by incubation with hydrogen peroxide and tert-butyl hydroperoxide caused a significant alteration in reduced glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration compared to the control. Our results show that medicinal plant extracts protect erythrocytes from hydrogen peroxide and tert-butyl hydroperoxide induced oxidative stress; known antioxidant (vitamin C, E, and P-carotene) and flavonoid (quercetin) also showed a similar protective effect. Our observations may, in part, suggest the use of the spent/waste parts of medicinal plants. This could be an economically viable source of natural and potent antioxidants effective against complications arising from oxidative stress. The results may also improve the ethanopharmacological knowledge of medicinal plants.

URL:

http://informahealthcare.com/doi/abs/10.1080/13880200902832900

 

104.

Authors:

Ghebremichael, Kebreab
Abaliwano, Juliet
Amy, Gary

Title:

Combined natural organic and synthetic inorganic coagulants for surface water treatment

Publication:

JOURNAL OF WATER SUPPLY RESEARCH ANDTECHNOLOGY-AQUA

Abstract:

The purified coagulant from Moringa oleifera obtained by simple ion exchange purification was used for the removal of turbidity, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and bacteria from surface water. The natural coagulant was used as a primary coagulant and as a coagulant aid with metal salts. Different water quality and operational parameters such as pH, turbidity and mixing conditions were investigated. Characterization studies using fluorescence excitation emission matrix indicated that the coagulant protein from M. oleifera was a tyrosine-like protein. Turbidity and bacteria (Escherichia coli) removal efficiency of the purified M. oleifera and metal coagulants were similar. While the removal of bacteria by metal salts was mainly due to coagulation/flocculation, the removal by M. oleifera coagulant was as a result of both coagulation and growth inhibition, which is expected to improve sludge microbiological quality. Among the operational parameters, slow mixing time significantly influenced performance of natural coagulant. At optimum dosages, the crude extract increased the DOCof the treated water significantly whereas the purified coagulant showed a significant removal of fulvic-like DOCfraction. When used in combination with metal salts, adding of M. oleifera before the metal salts showed better turbidity and DOCremoval than adding it after the metal salts.

URL:

http://cat.inist.fr/?aModele=afficheN&cpsidt=21630506

 

105.

Authors:

Sharma, Brajendra K.
Rashid, Umer
Anwar, Farooq
Erhan, Sevim Z.

Title:

Lubricant properties of Moringa oil using thermal and tribological techniques

Publication:

JOURNAL OF THERMAL ANALYSIS ANDCALORIMETRY

Abstract:

The increasing application of biobased lubricants could significantly reduce environmental pollution and contribute to the replacement of petroleum base oils. Vegetable oils are recognized as rapidly biodegradable and are thus promising candidates for use as base fluids in formulation of environment friendly lubricants. Although many vegetable oils have excellent lubricity, they often have poor oxidation and low temperature stability. Here in, we report the lubricant potential of Moringa oil, which has 74% oleic acid content and thus possess improved oxidation stability over many other natural oils. For comparison, Jatropha oil, cottonseed oil, canola oil and sunflower oil were also studied. Among these oils, Moringa oil exhibits the highest thermo-oxidative stability measured using PDSC and TG. Canola oil demonstrated superior low temperature stability as measured using cryogenic DSC, pour point and cloud point measurements. The friction and wear properties were measured using HFRR. Overall, it was concluded that Moringa oil has potential in formulation of industrial fluids for high temperature applications.

URL:

http://www.akademiai.com/content/586q3u5151xh5t33/

 

106.

Authors:

Perveen, Anjum
Qaiser, Muhammad

Title:

POLLEN FLORA OF PAKISTAN-LXIII. MORINGACEAE

Publication:

PAKISTANJOURNAL OF BOTANY

Abstract:

Pollen morphology of 2 species of the family Moringaceae from Pakistanhas been examined by light and scanning electron microscope. Pollen grains are usually radially symmetrical, isopolar, colporate, sub-prolate to oblate-spheroidal. Sexine slightly thinner than nexine or as thick as nexine. Tectum sub-psilate, sparsely punctate. On the basis of polar length two distinct pollen types viz., Moringa concanensis-type and Moringa oleifera-type are recognized.

URL:

http://www.pakbs.org/pjbot/PDFs/41(3)/PJB41(3)0987.pdf

 

 

107.

Authors:

Beltran-Heredia, J.
Sanchez-Martin, J.
Delgado-Regalado, A.

Title:

Removal of Carmine Indigo Dye with Moringa oleifera Seed Extract

Publication:

INDUSTRIAL & ENGINEERING CHEMISTRY RESEARCH

Abstract:

Moringa oleifera has been tested as an active agent in removing various types of anionic dyes. Specially, removal of an indigoid dye, Carmine Indigo, has been tested. The fast kinetics of coagulant action and the high potential of this coagulant agent to treat wastewater from dyestuff has been revealed. Moringa oleifera is fully working in coagulation and flocculation process, and it achieves an average level of removal up to 80%. The pH does not affect the coagulant process, and temperature has a negative influence. By increasing initial dye concentration, lower dye percentage removal is achieved and higher q is presented. Coagulation and flocculation processes can be estimated by the Langmuir and Freundlich models, but the first one gives a better explanation of the coagulation and adsorption behavior (r(2) equal to 0.97). Carmine Indigo removal presents an optimum q capacity at 343 mg.L-1 and 11.2 degrees C. Pilot plant installation gives a similar efficiency for dye removal.

URL:

http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/ie9004833

 

108.

Authors:

Jaiswal, Dolly
Rai, Prashant Kumar
Kumar, Amit
Mehta, Shikha
Watal, Geeta

Title:

Effect of Moringa oleifera Lam. leaves aqueous extract therapy on hyperglycemic rats

Publication:

JOURNAL OF ETHNOPHARMACOLOGY

Abstract:

Ethnopharmacological relevance: In Indian traditional system of medicine, Moringa oleifera Lam. Syn. Moringa pterygosperma Gaerth (Moringaceae) is commonly used as healing herb to treat diabetes. Aim of the study: The purpose of the present study was to assess the effect of M. oleifera leaves aqueous extract therapy on glycemic control, haemoglobin, total protein, urine sugar, urine protein and body weight.
Materials and methods: Variable doses of 100, 200 and 300 mg kg(-1) of aqueous extract were administered orally by gavage for evaluating their hypoglycemic and antidiabetic effects on fasting blood glucose (FBG), oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and post prandial glucose (PPG) of normal and streptozotocin (STZ) induced sub, mild and severely diabetic rats.
Results: The dose of 200 mg kg(-1) decreases blood glucose level (BGL) of normal animals by 26.7 and 29.9% during FBG and OGTT studies respectively. In sub and mild diabetic animals the same dose produced a maximum fall of 31.1 and 32.8% respectively, during OM. In case of severely diabetic animals FBG and PPG levels were reduced by 69.2 and 51.2% whereas, total protein, body weight and haemoglobin were increased by 11.3, 10.5 and 10.9% respectively after 21 days of treatment. Significant reduction was found in urine sugar and urine protein levels from +4 and +2 to nil and trace, respectively.
Conclusion: The study validates scientifically the widely claimed use of M. oleifera as an ethnomedicine to treat diabetes mellitus.

URL:

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science

 

109.

Authors:

Sultana, Bushra
Anwar, Farooq
Ashraf, Muhammad

Title:

Effect of Extraction Solvent/Technique on the Antioxidant Activity of Selected Medicinal Plant Extracts

Publication:

MOLECULES

Abstract:

The effects of four extracting solvents [absolute ethanol, absolute methanol, aqueous ethanol (ethanol: water, 80: 20 v/v) and aqueous methanol (methanol: water, 80: 20 v/v)] and two extraction techniques (shaking and reflux) on the antioxidant activity of extracts of barks of Azadirachta indica, Acacia nilotica, Eugenia jambolana, Terminalia arjuna, leaves and roots of Moringa oleifera, fruit of Ficus religiosa, and leaves of Aloe barbadensis were investigated. The tested plant materials contained appreciable amounts of total phenolic contents (0.31-16.5 g GAE/100g DW), total flavonoid (2.63-8.66 g CE/100g DW); reducing power at 10 mg/mL extract concentration (1.36-2.91), DPPH. scavenging capacity (37.2-86.6%), and percent inhibition of linoleic acid (66.0-90.6%). Generally higher extract yields, phenolic contents and plant material antioxidant activity were obtained using aqueous organic solvents, as compared to the respective absolute organic solvents. Although higher extract yields were obtained by the refluxing extraction technique, in general higher amounts of total phenolic contents and better antioxidant activity were found in the extracts prepared using a shaker.

URL:

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19553890

 

110.

Authors:

Ferreira, Paulo M. P.
Carvalho, Ana F. U.
Farias, Davi F.
Cariolano, Nara G.
Melo, Vania M. M.
Queiroz, Maria G. R.
Martins, Alice M. C.
Machado-Neto, Joaquim G.

Title:

Larvicidal activity of the water extract of Moringa oleifera seeds against Aedes aegypti and its toxicity upon laboratory animals

Publication:

ANAIS DA ACADEMIA BRASILEIRA DE CIENCIAS

Abstract:

In this work, biological effects of the water extract of Moringa oleifera seeds (WEMOS) were assessed on eggs and 3(rd) instar larvae of Aedes aegypti and on its toxicity upon laboratory animals (Daphnia magna, mice and rats). Crude WEMOS showed a LC50 value of 1260 mu g/mL, causing 99.2 +/- 2.9% larvae mortality within 24 h at 5200 mu g/mL, though this larvicidal activity has been lost completely at 80 degrees C/10 min. WEMOS did not demonstrate capacity to prevent egg hatching. After extensive dialyses of the crude WEMOS into water-soluble dialyzable (DF) and non-dyalizable (NDF) fractions, only DF maintained its efficacy to kill larvae. Acute toxicity evaluations on daphnids (EC50 of 188.7 mu g/mL) and mice (LD50 of 446.5 mg/kg body weight) pointed out to low toxicity. Despite the thymus hypertrophy, WEMOS revealed to be harmless in orally and subacutely-treated rats. In conclusion, WEMOS has thermostable bioactive compounds against Ae. aegypti larvae with apparent molecular mass lower than 12 kDa and moderately toxic potential.

URL:

http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?pid=S0001-37652009000200007&script=sci_arttext&tlng=en

 

 

111.

Authors:

Beltran-Heredia, J.
Sanchez-Martin, J.
Frutos-Blanco, G.

Title:

Schinopsis balansae tannin-based flocculant in removing sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate

Publication:

SEPARATION ANDPURIFICATION TECHNOLOGY

Abstract:

A new tannin-based coagulant and flocculant agent has been tested on the removal of sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS), a dangerous and pollutant anionic surfactant. It is called SilvaFLOC and consists of a chemical modified tannin extract from Schinopsis balansae, commonly known as Quebracho. A fully detailed study has been carried out. SilvaFLOC has been revealed as an efficient product in anionic surfactant removal. Around 80% of SDBS removal has been achieved with SilvaFLOC doses of 300 mg L-1. pH has a negative influence on surfactant removal, while the higher initial surfactant concentration the higher q capacity is obtained. Theoretical data adjustment has been carried out according to three different models: Fowler-Frumkin-Guggenheim (FFG), Gu and Zhu (G-Z) and Freundlich (F). Adjustment parameters have been obtained with r(2) levels above 0.96 in all cases. In order to study the interaction between pH and initial surfactant concentration, a design of experiments procedure has been carried out. Optimum pH has been found in 5.8.

URL:

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science

 

112.

Authors:

Perez Gutierrez, Rosa Martha
Garcia Baez, Efren

Title:

Cardioactive Agents from Plants

Publication:

MINI-REVIEWS IN MEDICINAL CHEMISTRY

Abstract:

This review presents 201 compounds isolated and identified from plants that present cardioactive activity. These substances have been classified by chemical groups and each provides the most relevant information of its pharmacological activity, action mechanism, chemical structure, spectroscopic date and other properties. Chemical structures have been drawn to indicate the stereochemistry. In this review the summary of the scientific information of plants that present biological activity and the compounds responsible for this activity is presented, which introduces the reader to the study of medicinal plants and also provide bibliographic references, where a detailed study of pharmacology can be found.

URL:

http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/ben/mrmc/2009/00000009/00000007/art00012

 

113.

Authors:

Ayanbimpe, Grace Mebi
Ojo, Titilayo K.
Afolabi, Ezekiel
Opara, Faith
Orsaah, Sylvia
Ojerinde, Olalekan Stephen

Title:

Evaluation of Extracts of Jatropha curcas and Moringa oleifera in Culture Media for Selective Inhibition of Saprophytic Fungal Contaminants

Publication:

JOURNAL OF CLINICAL LABORATORY ANALYSIS, 23:161-164, 2009

Abstract:

Most fungi occur in nature and utilize simple sources of carbohydrates and nitrogen for growth. Sabouraud’s dextrose agar has been an ideal medium for primary isolation of fungi from clinical specimens, but for specimens from nonsterile sites or heavily contaminated ones, it has been necessary to include inhibitory substances such as antibiotics like chloramphenicol (antibacterial) and cycloheximide (antifungal). The problems we have in the our laboratory owing to frequent contamination of cultures and the delays in the procurement of cycloheximide have stimulated a search for alternatives in our local environment to enhance effective laboratory diagnoses of fungal infections. Purified extracts of the leaves and bark of Jatropha curcas and Moringa oleifera (common plants in our locality) were tested against clinical isolates of fungi at various concentrations to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration at which common fungal contaminants are inhibited, without affecting the growth of the pathogenic fungi sought for. At a concentration of 0.75 mg ml(-1) contaminants were totally inhibited by the leaf extracts. The bark extracts did not inhibit any fungus even at higher concentrations. From the results it was evident that the leaf extracts of both plants have potentials for use as inhibitory substances in culture media against contaminant fungi including Aspergillus spp., Penicillium spp., etc. J. curcas and M. oleifera are very common plants in our locality. They can be obtained at almost no cost and at any time needed. The benefits of these findings to mycology laboratories in a developing country are enormous.

URL:

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/jcla.20311/abstract

 

114.

Authors:

Mishra, Deepshikha
Gupta, Richa
Pant, S. C.
Kushwah, Pramod
Satish, H. T.
Flora, S. J. S.

Title:

Co-Administration of Monoisoamyl Dimercaptosuccinic Acid and Moringa Oleifera Seed Powder Protects Arsenic-Induced Oxidative Stress and Metal Distribution in Mice

Publication:

TOXICOLOGY MECHANISMS ANDMETHODS

Abstract:

Arsenic contamination of groundwater in the West Bengalbasin in Indiais unfolding as one of the worst natural geo-environmental disasters to date. Chelation therapy with chelating agents is considered to be the best known treatment against arsenic poisoning; however, they are compromised with certain serious drawbacks/side-effects. Efficacy of combined administration of Moringa oleifera (M. oleifera) (English: Drumstick tree) seed powder, a herbal extract, with a thiol chelator monoisoamyl DMSA (MiADMSA) post-arsenic exposure in mice was studied. Mice were exposed to 100 ppm arsenic in drinking water for 6 months, followed by 10-days treatment with M. oleifera seed powder (500 mg/kg, orally through gastric gavage, once daily), MiADMSA (50 mg/kg, intraperitoneally, once daily) either individually or in combination. Arsenic exposure caused significant decrease in blood glutathione, delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD), accompanied by increased production of reactive oxygen species in blood and soft tissues. Significant inhibition of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase activities in tissues (liver in particular) along with significant increase in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and metallothionein levels in arsenic intoxicated mice was also noted. Combined administration of MiADMSA with M. oleifera proved better than all other treatments in the recovery of most of the above parameters accompanied by more pronounced depletion of arsenic. The results suggest that concomitant administration of M. oleifera during chelation treatment with MiADMSA might be a better treatment option than monotherapy with the thiol chelator in chronic arsenic toxicity.

URL:

http://informahealthcare.com/doi/abs/10.1080/15376510701795751?select23=Choose

 

115.

Authors:

Singh, Brahma N.
Singh, B. R.
Singh, R. L.
Prakash, D.
Dhakarey, R.
Upadhyay, G.
Singh, H. B.

Title:

Oxidative DNAdamage protective activity, antioxidant and anti-quorum sensing potentials of Moringa oleifera

Publication:

FOOD ANDCHEMICAL TOXICOLOGY

Abstract:

The aqueous extract of leaf (LE), fruit (FE) and seed (SE) of Moringa oleifera was assessed to examine the ability to inhibit the oxidative DNAdamage, antioxidant and anti-quorum sensing (QS) potentials. It was found that these extracts could significantly inhibit the OH center dot-dependent damage of pUC18 plasmid DNAand also inhibit synergistically with trolox, with an activity sequence of LE > FE > SE. HPLC and MS/MS analysis was carried out, which showed the presence of gallic acid, chlorogenic acid, ellagic acid, ferulic acid, kaempferol, quercetin and vanillin. The LE was with comparatively higher total phenolics content (105.04 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g), total flavonoids content (31.28 mg quercetin equivalents (QE)/g), and ascorbic acid content (106.95 mg/100 g) and showed better antioxidant activity (85.77%), anti-radical power (74.3), reducing power (1.1 ascorbic acid equivalents (ASE)/ml), inhibition of lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation, OH center dot-induced deoxyribose degradation, and scavenging power of superoxide anion and nitric oxide radicals than did the FE, SE and standard alpha-tocopherol. Eventually, LE and FE were found to inhibit violacein production, a QS-regulated behavior in Chromobacterium violaceum 12472.

URL:

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science

 

116.

Authors:

Prasad, R. Krishna

Title:

Color removal from distillery spent wash through coagulation using Moringa oleifera seeds: Use of optimum response surface methodology

Publication:

JOURNAL OF HAZARDOUS MATERIALS

Abstract:

The effects of dosage, pH and concentration of salts were investigated for an optimized condition of color removal from the distillery spent wash. The optimization process was analyzed using custom response surface methodology (RSM). The design was employed to derive a statistical model for the effect of parameters studied on removal of color using Moringa oleifera coagulant (MOC). The dosage (20 and 60 ml). pH (7 and 8.5) and concentration of 0.25 M had been found to be the optimum conditions for maximum 56% and 67% color removal using sodium chloride (NaCl) and potassium chloride (KCl) salts respectively. The actual color removal at optimal conditions was found to be 53% and 64% respectively for NaCl and KCl salts which confirms close to RSM results. The effects of storage duration and temperature on MOC studied reveal that coagulation efficiency of MOC kept at room temperature was effective for 3 days and at 4 degrees C it performed coagulation up to 5 days.

URL:

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science

 

117.

Authors:

Amagloh, Francis Kweku
Benang, Amos

Title:

Effectiveness of Moringa oleifera seed as coagulant for water purification

Publication:

AFRICAN JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH

Abstract:

The high cost of treated water makes most people in the rural communities to resort to readily available sources which are normally of low quality exposing them to waterborne diseases. It is in this light that this research was carried out to confirm the effectiveness of powder extracted from mature-dried Moringa oleifera seeds which is commonly available in most rural communities of Africa. This was done using Completely Randomised Design with loading doses of 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 g/L of the powder processed from Moringa seeds, and aluminium sulphate (alum) as coagulant. A control (water from the pond with only distilled water without alum and Moringa treatments) was also included. The turbidity, pH, and conductivity and total coliform were determined for all the samples. The turbidity for the samples ranged from log(10)0.30 to log(10)1.36NTU while the conductivity ranged from log(10)2.29 to log(10)2.72 mu S/cm. The 12 g/L treatment of Moringa and 10 and 12 g/L alum treatments gave values that are acceptable according to the World Health Organisation (WHO) guidelines for safe drinking water. The control sample gave the higher extremes values which are unacceptable. The pH values (7.29 to 7.89) obtained for the treatments were in the recommended range set by WHO. The Most Probable Number per 100 ml for total coliform counts had values from 2 to 17 at 95% confidence limits. The Moringa treatment gave lower counts. Findings of this research lend support to earlier works recommending the use of Moringa for water treatment.

URL:

http://www.akademik.unsri.ac.id/download/journal/files/academicjournals/Amagloh%20and%20Benang.pdf

 

118.

Authors:

Waqar, Muhammad Anwar
Mahmood, Yasir
Saleem, Asma
Saeed, Sheikh Arshad

Title:

An Investigation of Platelet Anti-aggregation Activity in Indigenous Medicinal Herbs

Publication:

JOURNAL OF THE CHEMICAL SOCIETY OF PAKISTAN

Abstract:

Platelets play a pivotal role in maintaining blood haemostasis. In present investigation, the platelet aggregation inhibition activity of seventeen (17) indigenous medicinal herbs was studied by using dual-channel aggregometer. The extracts of Medicago saliva, Ficus bengalensis, Allium sattvum, Morus alba, Green lea, Boerhavia diffusa, Azadirachta indica, Trigonella foenumgraecum L, Syzygium cumini (Jaman) seeds, Nigella saliva seeds, Peganum harmala, and Moringa oleifera, exhibited significant (P<0.05) activity (more than 50 % inhibition) against platelet aggregation agonist adenosine diphosphate (ADP) induced platelet aggregation. Extracts of Medicago saliva, Ficus bengalensis, Allium sativum, Morus alba, Green lea, Boerhavia diffusa, Azadirachta indica, Trigonella foenumgraecum L, Syzygium cumini (Jaman) seeds, Nigella saliva seeds, peganum harmala, and Moringa oleifera, inhibited ADP-induced aggregation in a concentration-dependent manner. The extracts of Solanum nigrum, Brassica oleracea, Syzygium cumini (Jaman pulp) Cinnamon, Morus fruit, Cyamopsis, Bryophylum, and Tribulus terristris showed relatively less inhibition. Dose response studies of all herbs tested in the present study were also carried out to calculate the concentrations at which 50 % inhibition (IC50) of platelet aggregation occurred. Our data is indicative that many of these herbs inhibited significant platelet antiaggregation properties.

URL:

http://jcsp.org.pk/index.php/jcsp/article/view/487/0

 

119.

Authors:

Beltran-Heredia, J.
Sanchez-Martin, J.
Solera-Hernandez, C.

Title:

Anionic Surfactants Removal by Natural Coagulant/Flocculant Products

Publication:

INDUSTRIAL & ENGINEERING CHEMISTRY RESEARCH

Abstract:

A new tannin-based coagulant and flocculant agent has been tested on the removal of sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS), a dangerous and pollutant anionic surfactant. It is called Tanfloc and consists of a chemically modified tannin extract from Acacia mearnsii de Wild. Tanfloc has been revealed as an efficient product in anionic surfactant removal. Around 70% of SDBS removal has been achieved with Tanfloc doses of 150 mg.L-1. pH has a negative influence on surfactant removal, while the higher the initial surfactant concentration is the higher q capacity is obtained. Theoretical data adjustment has been carried out according to three different models: Frumkin-Fowler-Guggenheim (FFG), Gu and Zhu (G-Z), and Freundlich (F). Adjustment parameters have been obtained with r(2) levels above 0.90 in all cases.

URL:

http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/ie801913y

 

120.

Authors:

Beltran-Heredia, J.
Sanchez-Martin, J.

Title:

Improvement of water treatment pilot plant with Moringa oleifera extract as flocculant agent

Publication:

ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY

Abstract:

Moringa oleifera extract is a high-capacity flocculant agent for turbidity removal in surface water treatment. A complete study of a pilot-plant installation has been carried out. Because of flocculent sedimentability of treated water, a residual turbidity occured in the pilot plant (around 30 NTU), which could not be reduced just by a coagulation-flocculation-sedimentation process. Because of this limitation, the pilot plant (excluded filtration) achieved a turbidity removal up to 70%. A slow sand filter was put in as a complement to installation. A clogging process was characterized, according to Carman-Kozeny’s hydraulic hypothesis. Kozeny’s k parameter was found to be 4.18. Through fouling stages, this k parameter was found to be up to 6.36. The obtained data are relevant for the design of a real filter in a continuous-feeding pilot plant. Slow sand filtration is highly recommended owing to its low cost, easy-handling and low maintenance, so it is a very good complement to Moringa water treatment in developing countries.

URL:

http://md1.csa.com/partners/viewrecord.php?requester=gs&collection=ENV&recid=10134792&q=&uid=790284667&setcookie=yes

 

 

121.

Authors:

Nikkon, Farjana
Hasan, Sohel
Salam, Kazi Abdus
Mosaddik, Mohammed A.
Khondkar, Proma
Haque, Mohammed Ekramul
Rahman, Mukhlesur

Title:

Benzylcarbamothioethionate from root bark of Moringa oleifera Lam. and its toxicological evaluation

Publication:

BOLETIN LATINOAMERICANO Y DELCARIBE DE PLANTAS MEDICINALES Y AROMATICAS

Abstract:

A new compound, benzylcarbamothioethionate (1), was isolated from the chloroform soluble fraction of the ethanolic extract of the root bark of Moringa oleifera Lam. Its structure was established on the basis of 1D and 2D-NMRand mass spectroscopy. The acute toxicity studies of chloroform extract and compound 1 were performed on Long Evan’s rats using four groups (two controls and two experimental). The hematological parameters such as the total RBC(red blood cell), total WBC (white blood cell), differential count of WBC, platelet count, hemoglobin and ESR (erythrocytes sedimentation rate) remained unchanged in both experimental and control groups. In case of biochemical study, SGPT (serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase), SGOT (serum glutamateoxaloacetate transaminase), SALP (serum alkaline phosphatase), bilirubin, creatinine and blood urea of experimental groups were also similar to that of control groups. Histopathology of liver, kidney, heart and lung did not reveal acute toxicity. So this study revealed that both the chloroform soluble fraction and compound 1 of Moringa oleifera Lam. had no toxic effects in our experimental models.

URL:

http://journals.indexcopernicus.com/abstracted.php?icid=882255

 

 

122.

Authors:

Nkurunziza, T.
Nduwayezu, J. B.
Banadda, E. N.
Nhapi, I.

Title:

The effect of turbidity levels and Moringa oleifera concentration on the effectiveness of coagulation in water treatment

Publication:

WATER SCIENCE ANDTECHNOLOGY

Abstract:

Laboratory experiments were carried out to assess the water purification and antimicrobial properties of Moringa oleifera (MO). Hence different concentrations (25 to 300 mg/L) were prepared from a salt (1 M NaCl) extract of MO fine powder and applied to natural surface water whose turbidity levels ranged from 50 to 450 NTU. The parameters determined before and after coagulation were turbidity, pH, colour, hardness, iron, manganese and Escherichia coli. The experiments showed that turbidity removal is influenced by the initial turbidity since the lowest turbidity removal of 83.2% was observed at 50 NTU, whilst the highest of 99.8% was obtained at 450 NTU. Colour removal followed the same trend as the turbidity. The pH exhibited slight variations through the coagulation. The hardness removal was very low (0 to 15%). However, high removals were achieved for iron (90.4% to 100%) and manganese (93.1% to 100%). The highest E. coli removal achieved was 96.0%. Its removal was associated with the turbidity removal. The optimum MO dosages were 150 mg/L (50 NTU and 150 NTU) and 125 mg/L for the rest of the initial turbidity values. Furthermore all the parameters determined satisfied the WHO guidelines for drinking water except for E. coli.

URL:

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19403968

 

123.

Authors:

Krishnaiah, D.
Devi, T.
Bono, A.
Sarbatly, R.

Title:

Studies on phytochemical constituents of six Malaysian medicinal plants

Publication:

JOURNAL OF MEDICINAL PLANTS RESEARCH

Abstract:

Tannins, phlobatannins, saponins, flavonoids, terpenoids, cardiac glycosides and alkaloids distribution in six Malaysian medicinal plants, where each medicinal plant belongs to different families were examined and compared. The plants used are Azadirachta indica, Centella asiatica, Emblica officinalis, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, Imperata cylindrica, and Moringa oleifera. Qualitative analysis carried out on each plant shows that tannins, saponins, flavonoids, terpenoids and alkaloids were present in all the plants. Phlobatannins were found to be present in C. asiatica and M. oleifera only and were absent in the rest of the plants. Cardiac glycosides were present in A. indica, C. asiatica and I.cylindrica and found to be absent in E. officinalis, H. rosa-sinensis and M. oleifera. The significance of the phytochemical constituents with the respect to the role of these plants in traditional medicine treatment is discussed.

URL:

http://www.cabdirect.org/abstracts/20093319550.html

 

124.

Authors:

Rajanandh, M. G.
Kumar, Satish M. N.
Kiran, C.
Elango, K.
Vadivalen, R.
Shanish
Antony, A.
Sethi, N.
Das, A.
Suresh, B.

Title:

Lipid lowering effect of Moringa oleifera in poloxamer-407 and high fat diet induced hyperlipidemia

Publication:

INDIAN JOURNAL OF PHARMACOLOGY

Abstract:

Abstract not available

URL:

URL not available

125.

Authors:

Doerr, Beth
Wade, Kristina L.
Stephenson, Katherine K.
Reed, Stewart B.
Fahey, Jed W.

Title:

Cultivar Effect on Moringa oleifera Glucosinolate Content and Taste: A Pilot Study

Publication:

ECOLOGY OF FOOD ANDNUTRITION

Abstract:

Leaves of the tropical tree Moringa oleifera are widely promoted in areas of chronic malnutrition as nutritional supplements for weaning infants and nursing mothers. Adoption, in these circumstances may hinge upon taste, which can vary greatly amongst cultivars. It is widely assumed that this taste variation is primarily germplasm-dependent, and results from the breakdown of glucosinolates to isothiocyanates. Leaves of 30 accessions, grown at a single field plot, were sampled 3 times over the course of a year. Taste, assessed in a masked protocol, was not related to glucosinolate content of the leaves.

URL:

http://cat.inist.fr/?aModele=afficheN&cpsidt=21500568

 

126.

Authors:

Thurber, Melanie D.
Fahey, Jed W.

Title:

Adoption of Moringa oleifera to Combat Under-Nutrition Viewed Through the Lens of the Diffusion of Innovations Theory

Publication:

ECOLOGY OF FOOD ANDNUTRITION

Abstract:

Moringa oleifera, an edible tree found worldwide in the dry tropics, is increasingly being used for nutritional supplementation. Its nutrient-dense leaves are high in protein quality, leading to its widespread use by doctors, healers, nutritionists and community leaders, to treat under-nutrition and a variety of illnesses. Despite the fact that no rigorous clinical trial has tested its efficacy for treating under-nutrition, the adoption of M. oleifera continues to increase. The Diffusion of innovations theory describes well, the evidence for growth and adoption of dietary M. oleifera leaves, and it highlights the need for a scientific consensus on the nutritional benefits.

URL:

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2679503/

 

127.

Authors:

Torrico Vallejos, Sonia
Erben, Mauricio F.
Piro, Oscar E.
Castellano, Eduardo E.
Della Vedova, Carlos O.

Title:

N-H center dot center dot center dot S=C hydrogen bond in O-alkyl N-methoxycarbonyl thiocarbamates, ROC(S)N(H)C(O)O)CH3 (R = CH3-, CH3CH2-)

Publication:

POLYHEDRON

Abstract:

Pure O-methyl N-methoxycarbonyl thiocarbamate CH3OC(S)N(H)C(O)OCH3 (I) and O-ethyl N-methoxycarbonyl thiocarbamate, CH3CH2OC(S)N(H)C(O)OCH3 (II), are quantitatively prepared by the addition reaction between the CH3OC(O)NCSand the corresponding alcohols. The compounds are characterized by multinuclear (H-1 and C-13) and bi-dimensional (C-13 HSQC) NMR, GC-MS and FTIR spectroscopy techniques. Structural and conformational properties are analyzed using a combined approach involving crystallographic data, vibration spectra and theoretical calculations. The low-temperature (150 K) crystal structure of II was determined by X-ray diffraction methods. The substance crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P2(1)/n with a = 4.088(1)angstrom. b = 22.346(1)angstrom, c = 8.284(1)angstrom, beta = 100.687(3)degrees and Z = 4 molecules per unit cell. The conformation adopted by the thiocarbamate group -OC(S)N(H)- is syn (C=S double bond in synperiplanar orientation with respect to the N-H single bond), while the methoxycarbonyl C=O double bond is in antiperiplanar orientation with respect to the N-H bond. The non-H atoms in II are essentially coplanar and the molecules are arranged in the crystal lattice as centro-symmetric dimeric units held by N-H center dot center dot center dot S=C hydrogen bonds Id(N center dot center dot center dot S) = 3.387(1)angstrom, <(N-H center dot center dot center dot S) = 166.4(2)degrees]. Furthermore, the effect of the it electronic resonance in the structural and vibrational properties is also discussed.

URL:

No url

 

128.

Authors:

Ogunbinu, Akinola O.
Flamini, Guido
Cioni, Pier L.
Adebayo, Muritala A.
Ogunwande, Isiaka A.

Title:

Constituents of Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp., Moringa oleifera Lam., Heliotropium indicum L. and Bidens pilosa L. from Nigeria

Publication:

NATURAL PRODUCT COMMUNICATIONS

Abstract:

The essential oils of four plant species from Nigeriahave been extracted by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC and GC-MS. The oils of Cc anus cajan were comprised of sesquiterpenes (92.5%, 81.2% and 94.3% respectively in the leaves, stein and seeds). The major compounds identified were alpha-himachalene (9.0-11.5%), beta-himachalene (8.0-11.0%), gamma-himachalene (6.9-8.1%), alpha-humulene (7.1-8.7%) and alpha-copaene (4.5-5.6%). However, monoterpenoid compounds (81.8%) dominated the oil of Moringa oleifera with an abundance of alpha-phellandrene (25.2%) and rho-cymene (24.9%). On the other hand, aldehydes (52.8%) occurred in the highest amount in Heliotropium indicum, represented by phenylacetaldehyde (22.2%), (E)-2-nonenal (8.3%) and (E, Z)-2-nonadienal (6.1%), with a significant quantity of hexahydrofarnesylacetone (8.4%). The leaf and stem oils of Bidens pilosa were dominated by sesquiterpenes (82.3% and 59.3%, respectively). The main compounds in the leaf oil were caryophyllene oxide (37.0%), beta-caryophyllene (10.5%) and humulene oxide (6.0%), while the stein oils had an abundance of hexahydrofarnesyl acetone (13.4%), delta-cadinene (12.0%) and caryophyllene oxide (11.0%). The observed chemical patterns differ considerably from previous investigations.

URL:

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19476009

 

129.

Authors:

Beltran-Heredia, J.
Sanchez-Martin, J.

Title:

Removal of sodium lauryl sulphate by coagulation/flocculation with Moringa oleifera seed extract

Publication:

JOURNAL OF HAZARDOUS MATERIALS

Abstract:

Among other natural flocculant/coagulant agents, Moringa oleifera seed extract ability to remove an anionic surfactant has been evaluated and it has been found to be very interesting. Sodium lauryl sulphate was removed from aqueous solutions up to 80% through coagulation/flocculation process. pH and temperature were found to be not very important factors in removal efficiency. Freundlich (F), Frumkin-Fowler-Guggenheim (FFG) and Gu-Zhu (GZ) models were used to adjust experimental data in a solid-liquid adsorption hypothesis. Last one resulted to be the most accurate one. Several data fit parameters were determined, as Freundlich order, which was found to be 1.66, Flory-Huggins interaction parameter from FFGmodel, which was found to be 4.87; and limiting Moringa surfactant adsorption capacity from GZ model, which was found to be 2.13 x 10(-3) mol/g.

URL:

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science

 

130.

Authors:

Ben Salem, H.
Makkar, H. P. S.

Title:

Removal of sodium lauryl sulphate by coagulation/flocculation with Moringa oleifera seed extract

Publication:

JOURNAL OF HAZARDOUS MATERIALS

Abstract:

Among other natural flocculant/coagulant agents, Moringa oleifera seed extract ability to remove an anionic surfactant has been evaluated and it has been found to be very interesting. Sodium lauryl sulphate was removed from aqueous solutions up to 80% through coagulation/flocculation process. pH and temperature were found to be not very important factors in removal efficiency. Freundlich (F), Frumkin-Fowler-Guggenheim (FFG) and Gu-Zhu (GZ) models were used to adjust experimental data in a solid-liquid adsorption hypothesis. Last one resulted to be the most accurate one. Several data fit parameters were determined, as Freundlich order, which was found to be 1.66, Flory-Huggins interaction parameter from FFGmodel, which was found to be 4.87; and limiting Moringa surfactant adsorption capacity from GZ model, which was found to be 2.13 x 10(-3) mol/g.

URL:

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science

 

131.

Authors:

Santos, Andrea F. S.
Luz, Luciana A.
Argolo, Adriana C. C.
Teixeira, Jose A.
Paiva, Patriicia M. G.
Coelho, Luana C. B. B.

Title:

Isolation of a seed coagulant Moringa oleifera lectin

Publication:

PROCESS BIOCHEMISTRY

Abstract:

In this work hemagglutinating activity (HA) was investigated in distinct Moringa oleifera tissue extracts. A new lectin from seeds (cMoL) was purified and characterized; hemagglutinating and coagulating activities were evaluated. HA was detected in 0.15 M NaCl extracts from flowers and rachis inflorescence (5%, w/v), seeds, leaves, fundamental tissue of stem and steam bark (10%, w/v). cMoL isolated after saline extraction and guar gel column chromatography was active at pH range 4.0-9.0 agglutinating erythrocytes from rabbit and human blood types. Extracts of tissues and cMoL activities were carbohydrate inhibited; azocasein and asialofetuin abolished cMoL HA. The lectin was thermostable at 100 degrees C during 7 h. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis under reduced conditions revealed a main polypeptide band of 26.5 kDa; native basic cMoL was detected as a unique band. Seed lectin preparations and cMoL showed coagulant activity, similar to aluminium sulphate, the coagulant most widely used in water treatment.

URL:

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science

 

132.

Authors:

Mahmoud-Ghoneim, Doaa
Amin, Amr
Corr, Peter

Title:

MRI-based texture analysis: a potential technique to assess protectors against induced-liver fibrosis in rats

Publication:

RADIOLOGY ANDONCOLOGY

Abstract:

Background. In this study, the protective effect of extract of Moringa oleifera against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver fibrosis in rats was evaluated using Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Texture Analysis (MRI-TA) and the results were compared to liver function tests and histopathology.
Methods. Twenty-eight male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: a) the normal control group (C) received an intra-gastric administration of vehicle for eight weeks; b) the fibrosis group (F) received an intra-peritoneal administration of CCl4 twice a week for eight weeks; c) the silymarin group (S) received 0.2 g/kg orally once a day for eight weeks along with CCl4; d) the M. oleifera protected group (M), received an intra-gastric dose at 0.5 g/kg for 8 weeks concomitantly with CCl4. Histopathology and liver function were performed and both confirmed protection against CCl4-induced liver fibrosis.
Results. The fibrosis index showed a remarkable increase in collagen-I contents in the CCl4-injured animals (12.73 +/- 2.37%) while fibrotic indices were significantly less in liver tissues of Moringa-treated and silymarin-treated animals (5.23 +/- 0.13% and 1.23 +/- 1.01%, respectively). MRI-TA results were consistent with previous histopathological findings. Classification of MRI-TA parameters for the C, F, and M groups showed that the F group was separated from both M and C groups on the MDF-1 axis (Most Discriminating Parameters-1) whereby this group always had negative values. The C and M groups clustered closely on the same axis with positive values. Very similar results were obtained from classification of the C, F and S groups. The texture parameters used in this study measure the coarseness of the imaged tissue, which is influenced by the collagen contents and distribution, that are known to be increased in fibrosis and inhibited by antifibrotic drugs thus affecting image classification.
Conclusions. Based on our findings, MRI-TA can be established as a potential tool for assessing the protective or therapeutic effects of tested antifibrotic drug/s. M. oleifera exhibits a partial hepatoprotective effect on rats treated with CCl4 which was proven by histopathology and liver function tests and indicated by MRI-TA performed on liver samples. We recommend MRI-TA as a potential tool for a simpler, easier, and faster way of indicating the therapeutic effect of antifibrotic drugs.

URL:

http://versita.metapress.com/content/d210x27359315w81/

 

133.

Authors:

Nadeema, M.
Shabbir, M.
Abdullah, M. A.
Shah, S. S.
McKay, G

Title:

Sorption of cadmium from aqueous solution by surfactant-modified carbon adsorbents

Publication:

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING JOURNAL

Abstract:

Sorption capacities for cadmium, Cd(II) on indigenously prepared. steam activated, untreated surfactant, modified carbon powder, from husk and pods of Moringa oleifera were investigated. The optimized conditions for all the experimental runs were pH 8.0 +/- 0.2 temperature 30 +/- 0.5 degrees C contact time 120 min, agitation speed 160rpm, initial metal concentration 30 mg L-1 and adsorbent dosage 1.0 g L-1, respectively. Maximum Cd(II) removal, 98.0% was observed when cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB), cationic surfactant-treated carbon was used as an adsorbent. The Cd(II) removal percentages for sodium dodec I sulphate SDSanionic surfactant, Triton X-100 (non-ionic surfactant) treated and untreated powder activated carbons were found to be 95.60, 81.50 and 73.36%, respectively. SEMimages and BET surface area, porosity and pore volume measurements have revealed that surfactant-treated carbons have superior porosity and enhanced surface area than untreated carbons. The sorption data were correlated better with the Langmuir adsorption isotherm than Freundlich isotherm with R-2 values ranging from 0.91 to 0.98.

URL:

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science

 

134.

Authors:

Nandave, Mukesh
Ojha, Shreesh Kumar
Joshi, Sujata
Kumari, Santosh
Arya, Dharamvir Singh

Title:

Moringa oleifera Leaf Extract Prevents Isoproterenol-Induced Myocardial Damage in Rats: Evidence for an Antioxidant, Antiperoxidative, and Cardioprotective Intervention

Publication:

JOURNAL OF MEDICINAL FOOD

Abstract:

The present study evaluated cardioprotective effect of lyophilized hydroalcoholic extract of Moringa oleifera in the isoproterenol (ISP)-induced model of myocardial infarction. Wistar albino male rats were divided into three groups and orally fed saline once daily alone (sham) or with ISP (ISP control) or ISP with M. oleifera (200 mg/kg), respectively, for 1 month. On days 29 and 30 of administration, rats of the ISP control and M. oleifera-ISP groups were administered ISP (85 mg/kg, s.c.) at an interval of 24 hours. On day 31, hemodynamic parameters (mean arterial pressure [MAP], heart rate [HR], left ventricular end-diastolic pressure [LVEDP], and left ventricular peak positive [(+) LV dP/dt] and negative [(-) LV dP/dt] pressures were recorded. At the end of the experiment, the animals were sacrificed, and hearts were excised and processed for biochemical, histopathological, and ultrastructural studies. Chronic treatment with M. oleifera demonstrated mitigating effects on ISP-induced hemodynamic [HR, (+) LVdP/dt, (-) LVdP/dt, and LVEDP] perturbations. Chronic M. oleifera treatment resulted in significant favorable modulation of the biochemical enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, lactate dehydrogenase, and creatine kinase-MB) but failed to demonstrate any significant effect on reduced glutathione compared to the ISP control group. Moringa treatment significantly prevented the rise in lipid peroxidation in myocardial tissue. Furthermore, M. oleifera also prevented the deleterious histopathological and ultrastructural perturbations caused by ISP. Based on the results of the present study, it can be concluded that M. oleifera extract possesses significant cardioprotective effect, which may be attributed to its antioxidant, antiperoxidative, and myocardial preservative properties.

URL:

http://www.liebertonline.com/doi/abs/10.1089/jmf.2007.0563

135.

Authors:

Beltran-Heredia, J.
Sanchez-Martin, J.

Title:

HEAVY METALS REMOVAL FROM SURFACE WATER WITH Moringa oleifera SEED EXTRACT AS FLOCCULANT AGENT

Publication:

FRESENIUS ENVIRONMENTAL BULLETIN

Abstract:

Moringa oleifera seeds extract has been tested for heavy metals removal from surface water. pH value has been revealed to be very significant as basic pH leads to hydroxide precipitation. Moringa oleifera capability for removing Cu2+, Zn2+ and Ni2+ has been explored through two proceedings: Jar-test assays and a pilot plant composed by a coagulation/flocculation tank, a sedimentator and a slow sand filter. Effectiveness of coagulation/flocculation process for removing these metals is around 10% in batch assays, and it is linked to turbidity removal. In order to improve this process, pilot plant with a recycle and filtration was implemented, so effectiveness raised up to 20%. Another property of Moringa oleifera can be considered in order to characterize its potential use in water treatment.

URL:

http://md1.csa.com/partners/viewrecord.php?requester =gs&collection=TRD&recid=200904300056131CE&q=&uid=790284667&setcookie=yes

136.

Authors:

Sudisha, J.
Niranjan-Raj, S.
Shetty, H. Shekar

Title:

Seed priming with plant gum biopolymers enhances efficacy of metalaxyl 35 SD against pearl millet downy mildew

Publication:

PHYTOPARASITICA

Abstract:

‘Priming’ the plant and seed induces a physiological state in which plants are able to activate defense responses. Plant-based exudates are excellent gum biopolymers which contain plant growth-regulating hormones with priming potential without any side effects. In this study, gum exudates of Acacia arabica, Moringa oleifera, Carica papaya and Azadirachta indica were evaluated for synergistic effects of seed priming with exuded gum biopolymer combined with metalaxyl (Apron 35 SD) on pearl millet seed quality, growth parameters, and resistance to Sclerospora graminicola. Seeds of 7042S were primed with gum biopolymers and metalaxyl 35 SD and evaluated under laboratory and greenhouse conditions. Seed germination and vigor were synergistically enhanced using gum biopolymers solution (1:2 w/v) with 3 g kg(-1) metalaxyl 35 SD. A. arabica and A. indica gum biopolymers alone or with 3 g kg(-1) of metalaxyl 35 SD resulted in seed germination of > 91%. Seed priming with 6 g kg(-1) of metalaxyl 35 SD gave 89% seed germination and was not significantly different from control. A similar trend in vigor was observed among treatments. Seed priming with gum biopolymers alone provided varied disease protection levels when compared with the control. A. arabica or A. indica gum with 3 g kg(-1) of metalaxyl 35 SD was the superior treatment, offering significant 86% disease reduction while exhibiting a growth-promoting effect. Synergistic use of gum biopolymers and metalaxyl 35 SD by seed priming is highly effective in growth promotion and management of pearl millet downy mildew disease.

URL:

http://www.springerlink.com/content/0506283182575×04/

137.

Authors:

Ganguly, R.
Guha, D.

Title:

Alteration of brain monoamines & EEG wave pattern in rat model of Alzheimer’s disease & protection by Moringa oleifera

Publication:

INDIAN JOURNAL OF MEDICAL RESEARCH

Abstract:

Background & objectives: The monoaminergic systems which exert a modulatory role in memory processing, are disturbed in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and Moringa oleifera (MO) has been shown to exert its effect in CNS by altering the brain monoamines. The present study aims to see whether chronic oral treatment of ethanolic extract of MO leaves can alter the brain monoamines (norepinephrine, dopamine and serotonin) in distinct areas of brain in rat model of AD caused by intracerebroverticle (ICV) infusion of colchicine and hence can provide protection against monoaminergic deficits associated with AD.
Methods: Rats were given ICV infusion of colchicine (15 mu g/5 mu l) and MO leaf alcoholic extract was given in various doses. The effective dose was standardized by radial arm maze (RAM) training. From the selected dose of 250 mg/kg body weight, the biochemical estimations and EEG studies were performed.
Results: Stereotaxic ICV infusion of colchicine significantly impaired the RAM performance together with decrease in norepinephrine (NE) level in cerebral cortex (CC), hippocampus (HQ and caudate nucleus (CN). Dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT) levels were decreased in CC, HC and CN. The EEG studies showed a decrease in beta and alpha waves and increase in biphasic spike wave pattern in experimental Alzheimer rat model. Treatment with MO extract markedly increased the number of correct choices in a RAM task with variable alteration of brain monoamines. The EEG studies showed an increase in beta waves and a decrease in spike wave discharges.
Interpretation & conclusions: Our results showed that brain monoamines were altered discreetly in different brain areas after colchicine infusion in brain. After treatment with MO, leaf extract the monoamine levels of brain regions were restored to near control levels. Our findings indicated that MO might have a role in providing protection against AD in rat model by altering brain menoamine levels and electrical activity.

URL:

http://www.springerlink.com/content/0506283182575×04/

 

138.

Authors:

Sulaiman, M. R.
Zakaria, Z. A.
Bujarimin, A. S.
Somchit, M. N.
Israf, D. A.
Moin, S.

Title:

Evaluation of Moringa oleifera Aqueous Extract for Antinociceptive and Anti-Inflammatory Activities in Animal Models

Publication:

PHARMACEUTICAL BIOLOGY

Abstract:

Moringa oleifera L. (Moringaceae) is known to possess high nutritional value and is used in a folklore medicine to treat various ailments related to pain and inflammation. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of the aqueous extract of the leaves of M. oleifera in laboratory animals, using the writhing, hot-plate and formalin tests as the antinociceptive assays, and carrageenan-induced paw edema test as the anti-inflammatory assay. The extract (10, 30 and 100 mg/kg) exhibited significant (P < 0.05) antinociceptive activity, which occurred in a dose-dependent manner, in all tests used. The extract also exhibited significant (P < 0.05) anti-inflammatory activity in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, the extract antinociceptive activity was suggested to be modulated via opioid receptors at the central, but not peripheral, antinociceptive level, based on the ability of 5 mg/kg naloxone to reverse the extract activity in the hot-plate, but not the writhing test. In conclusion, M. oleifera leaves possess peripherally non-opioid mediated and centrally opioid mediated antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities. This study also confirms the traditional uses of M. oleifera in the treatment of ailments, particularly those related to pain and inflammation.

URL:

http://informahealthcare.com/doi/abs/10.1080/13880200802366710?select23=Choose

 

139.

Authors:

Karadi, R. V.
Palkar, M. B.
Gaviraj, E. N.
Gadge, N. B.
Mannur, V. S.
Alagawadi, K. R.

Title:

Antiurolithiatic Property of Moringa oleifera Root Bark

Publication:

PHARMACEUTICAL BIOLOGY

Abstract:

In spite of tremendous advances in the field of medicine, there is no truly satisfactory drug for the treatment of renal calculi. In the present study, the efficacy of the root bark of Moringa oleifera Lam. (Moringaceae) as an antiurolithiatic agent was investigated using an experimentally induced urolithiatic rat model. Hyperoxaluria was induced in rats using 0.75% ethylene glycol in water. Aqueous (AqE) (200 mg kg(-1) body weight) and alcoholic extracts (AlcE) (200 mg kg(-1) body weight) of the root bark of M. oleifera were given orally in curative and preventive regimens over a period of 28 days. Both the extracts significantly (P < 0.001) lowered the urinary excretion and kidney retention levels of oxalate, calcium and phosphate. Moreover, elevated serum levels of urea nitrogen, creatinine and uric acid were significantly (P < 0.001) reduced by the extracts. The results were comparable with the standard drug, cystone (750 mg kg(-1) body weight). The reduction of stone forming constituents in urine and their decreased kidney retention reduces the solubility product of crystallizing salts such as calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate, which could contribute to the antiurolithiatic property of root bark of M. oleifera.

URL:

http://informahealthcare.com/doi/abs/10.1080/13880200802367189?select23=Choose

 

140.

Authors:

Panda, D. S.
Choudhury, N. S. K.
Yedukondalu, M.
Si, S.
Gupta, R.

Title:

Evaluation of Gum of Moringa oleifera as a Binder and Release Retardant in Tablet Formulation

Publication:

INDIAN JOURNAL OF PHARMACEUTICAL SCIENCES

Abstract:

The present study was undertaken to find out the potential of gum from Moringa oleifera to act as a binder and release retardant in tablet formulations. The effect of calcium sulphate dihydrate (water insoluble) and lactose (water soluble) diluent on the release of propranolol hydrochloride was studied. The DSC thermograms of drug, gum and mixture of gum/drug indicated no chemical interaction. Tablets (F1, F2, F3, and F4) were prepared containing calcium sulphate dihydrate as diluent, propranolol hydrochloride as model drug using 10%, 8%, 6% and 4% w/v of gum solution as binder. Magnesium stearate was used as lubricant. Physical and technological properties of granules and tablets like flow rate, Carr index, Hausner ratio, angle of repose, hardness, friability and disintegration time were determined and found to be satisfactory. Tablets were prepared by wet granulation method containing calcium sulphate dihydrate as excipient, propranolol hydrochloride as model drug using 10%, 20% and 30% of gum as release retardant, magnesium stearate was used as lubricant. Similarly tablets were prepared replacing lactose with calcium sulphate dihydrate. Despite of the widely varying physico-chemical characteristics of the excipients, the drug release profiles were found to be similar. The drug release increased with increasing proportions of the excipient and decreased proportion of the gum irrespective of the solubility characteristics of the excipient. The values of release exponent ‘n’ are between 0.37 and 0.54. This implies that the release mechanism is Fickian. There is no evidence that the dissolution or erosion of the excipient has got any effect on the release of the drug. The t(50%) values for tablets containing calcium sulphate dihydrate were on an average 10%-15% longer than the tablets containing lactose as excipient. These relatively small differences in t(50%) values suggest that the nature of excipient used appeared to play a minor role in regulating the release, while the gum content was a major factor.

URL:

http://www.ijpsonline.com/article.asp?issn=0250-474X;year=2008;volume=70;issue=5;spage=614;epage=618;aulast=Panda

141.

Authors:

Goyal, Pritee
Srivastava, Shalini

Title:

Metal biosorption equilibria in a ternary aqueous system using agricultural waste Ficus religiosa leaf powder

Publication:

NATIONALACADEMYSCIENCE LETTERS-INDIA

Abstract:

Sorption of tertiary metal ions [Cd (II), Cr (III) and Ni (II) on Ficus religiosa leaf powder (FRLP) was observed and compared with their single metal ion solutions. The adsorption capacities of the metal ions [Cd (II): 1.04 mgg(-1), Cr (III): 0.96 mgg(-1) and Ni (II): 0.77 mgg(-1)] in combination were found to be lower (10-20%) as compared to their single metal ion [Cd (II): 1.18 mgg(-1), Cr (III): 1.01 mgg(-1) and Ni (II): 0.92 mgg(-1)] solutions. FRLP remove the target metal ions in the selectivity order of [Cd (II)>Cr (III)>Ni (II)]. Desorption studies showed that the ease of metal ion recovery front metal-loaded biomass by the different eluants is of the order Nitric acid [0.05M]>Citric acid [0.5 M]> Sodium hydroxide [0.05M]> distilled water. The successful application of this easily abundant agricultural waste has enough potential for a low technological pretreatment step, prior to economically non viable high-tech chemical treatments for the removal of metals from water bodies.

URL:

http://cat.inist.fr/?aModele=afficheN&cpsidt=20995784

 

 

142

Authors:

Steinitz, Benjamin
Tabib, Yona
Gaba, Victor
Gefen, Tanya
Vaknin, Yiftach

Title:

Vegetative micro-cloning to sustain biodiversity of threatened Moringa species

Publication:

IN VITRO CELLULAR & DEVELOPMENTAL BIOLOGY-PLANT

Abstract:

Efficient vegetative cloning in vitro requires definition of plant growth regulator regimes for each genotype, and therefore formulation of a uniform culture protocol for a genetically heterogeneous wild or uncultivated plant population is often impossible. The likelihood of cloning a wide array of plant genotypes by avoiding the use of plant growth regulator(s) was explored with Moringa oleifera Lamk., Moringa stenopetala (Baker f.) Cufod, and Moringa peregrina Forssk. ex Fiori tree seedlings. Propagation was achieved by multiple shoot regeneration from the cotyledonary node of decapitated seedlings, followed by axillary shoot growth from single node shoot segments and rooting of excised shoots. All steps were accomplished on basal Murashige and Skoog medium without plant growth regulator supplements. The results revealed competence for generation of multiple shoots from cotyledonary node tissue, stimulated by repeated shoot harvest, in seedlings of all three tree species. Tens of plants per seedling were regenerated in about 4 mo from culture initiation. In a given species clone size was seedling-dependent, which presumably stems from genotypic variability among seedlings in regeneration ability in vitro. By this means the laborious search for a plant growth regulator regime suitable for organogenesis induction and adapted per genotype became redundant, and biodiversity of the seed germplasm could be maintained. The approach ideally suits establishment of clones of wild plants of endangered species, like those of the Moringaceae, species with high ability for producing supplementary shoots, and without the need to add plant growth regulators, including the rooting stage.

URL:

http://www.springerlink.com/content/565236hv8k203470/

 

143.

Authors:

Sashidhara, Koneni V.
Rosaiah, Jammikuntla N.
Tyagi, Ethika
Shukla, Rakesh
Raghubir, Ram
Rajendran, Siron M.

Title:

Rare dipeptide and urea derivatives from roots of Moringa oleifera as potential anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive agents

Publication:

EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF MEDICINAL CHEMISTRY

Abstract:

In the course of our studies on the isolation of bioactive compounds from the roots of Moringa oleifera, a traditional herb in southeast Asia, rare aurantiamide acetate 4 and 1,3-dibenzyl urea 5 have been isolated and characterized. And also, this is the first report of isolation from this genus. Isolated compound inhibited the production of TNF-alpha and IL-2; further compound 5 showed significant analgesic activities in a dose dependant manner. These findings may help in understanding the mechanism of action of this traditional plant leading to control of activated mast cells on inflammatory conditions like arthritis, for which the crude extract has been used.

URL:

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science

 

144.

Authors:

Fernandez, Andreina
Chavez, Magaly
Herrera, Francisco
Mas y Rubi, Marielba
Mejias, Donaldo
Diaz, Altamira

Title:

Evaluation of exudated gum produced by Acacia siamea as coagulant in the clarification of the waters for human consumption

Publication:

REVISTA TECNICA DE LA FACULTAD DE INGENIERIA UNIVERSIDAD DELZULIA

Abstract:

Utilization of the natural origin substances as coagulant in the water clarification process have been increased in Latin American countries, due to present innocuous character for the human health. The present investigation evaluated the application of the exudates gum derived from the tree Acacia siamea (A. siamea), as coagulant with the purpose to determinate the optimal dosage for the clarification of natural waters and to achieve the potential of the reduction for not desirable microorganisms in treated water. The application of 50 mg/L of exudates gum of A. siamea, as optimal dosage, was reached to reduction the turbidity (NTU) level between 80 to 95%. The total alkalinity and pH did not presented significant variations, thus did not add chemical substances for the regulation of the physical-chemistry charapter of the treated water. The results obtained with the microbiological tests indicate the potential of the exudates gum to use in this treatment plant to remove 98% for pathogenic microorganisms. One concludes that the gummed exudates of A. siamea can be used as natural coagulant for drinking water.

URL:

No url

 

145.

Authors:

Banerji, R.
Bajpai, Aruna
Verma, S. C.

Title:

Oil and Fatty Acid Diversity in Genetically Variable Clones of Moringa oleifera from India

Publication:

JOURNAL OF OLEO SCIENCE

Abstract:

The physico-chemical properties of oil from Moringa oleifera seeds from Indiawere determined in the present study. The petroleum ether extracted oil ranged from 27.83 – 45.07% on kernel basis and 15.1-28.4% on whole seed basis in 20 different clones. Leaves and pods showed a good source of vitamin C. Oleic acid (08:1) has been found to be the major fatty acid being 78.91-85.52% as compared to olive oil, which is considered to be richest source of oleic acid. All the clones from Indiadid not show any presence of behenic acid (C 22:0). The oil was also found to contain high levels of P-sitosterol ranged from 42.29-47.94% stigmasterol from 13.66-16.61%, campesterol from 12.53-16.63%. The gamma- and delta-tocopherol were found to be in the range of 128.0-146.95, 51.88-63.5 and 55.23-63.84 mg/kg, respectively.

URL:

http://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/jos/58/1/58_9/_article

 

146.

Authors:

Cardoso, Karina Cordeiro
Bergamasco, Rosangela
Cossich, Eneida Sala
Konradt Moraes, Leila Cristina

Title:

Otimizing mixture and decantation times in the process of coagulation/flocculation of raw water using Moringa oleifera Lam

Publication:

ACTA SCIENTIARUM-TECHNOLOGY

Abstract:

Otimizing mixture and decantation times in the process of coagulation/flocculation of raw water using Moringa oleifera Lam. Several natural coagulants/flocculants are being studied to remove color and turbidity from raw water; however, natural coagulants have demonstrated advantages over chemical ones. Moringa oleifera Lam is a natural polymer that has become an important alternative in water treatment, acting as a clarifying agent due to the presence of a cationic protein that destabilizes the particles contained in water in liquid form. This work proposes the optimization of the coagulation, flocculation and decantation times, using different concentrations of the solution extracted from the pulp of Moringa oleifera Lam seeds as coagulant, in order to verify its efficiency in removing color and turbidity from water. Jar tests were carried out, using different mixture and decantation times, with varying concentrations of the biopolymer. It was verified that the time required to achieve a fast and slow mixture, as well as the concentration of the coagulant, influenced the removal of parameters during the process of coagulation/ flocculation/sedimentation.

URL:

http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=abstract&id=390326

 

147.

Authors:

Szygula, Agata
Guibal, Eric
Ruiz, Montserrat
Sastre, Ana Maria

Title:

The removal of sulphonated azo-dyes by coagulation with chitosan

Publication:

COLLOIDS ANDSURFACES A-PHYSICOCHEMICAL ANDENGINEERING ASPECTS

Abstract:

Textile dying processes that produce coloured effluents have a place among the less environmentally friendly industrial techniques. Chitosan is an aminopolysaccharide that has been widely studied for dye recovery. This biopolymer is in most cases used as a sorbent in solid form, but can also be employed in a dissolved state in coagulation-flocculation processes. The present work has been devoted to the use of dissolved chitosan for the removal of sulphonated azo-dyes from acidic solutions. The removal of Acid Black I (which formed small flocs) required much more time than Reactive Black 5 or Acid Violet 5 for settling out. The number of sulphonic groups on the dye was correlated to the effectiveness of the coagulation-flocculation process, and it was found that the molar ratio between the dye molecules and the amine groups respected the stoichiometry between sulphonic functions and protonated amine groups only in the case of Acid Violet 5. For Reactive Black 5 and Acid Black 1, a lower number of amine groups were required for the neutralisation of sulphonic groups of the dyes, most probably as a result of dye aggregation. Important factors influencing the mechanism of coagulation-flocculation included the coagulant dose and the initial pH.

URL:

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science

 

148.

Authors:

Eugenio Garcia, Danny
Gabriela Medina, Maria
Clavero, Tyrone
Humbria, Johny
Baldizan, Alfredo
Dominguez, Carlos

Title:

Goats Preference of Fodder Tree in the Venezuelan Andes Low Zone.

Publication:

REVISTA CIENTIFICA-FACULTADDECIENCIAS VETERINARIAS

Abstract:

In order to know the preference of twelve fodder species (Chlorophora tinctoria, Morus alba, Pithecellobium pedicellare, Gliricidia sepium, Guazuma ulmifolia, Cordia alba, Trichantera gigantea, Tithonia diversifolia, Leucaena leucocephala, Moringa oleifera, Azadirachta indica and Samanea saman) a cafeteria trial was carried out in goats at Trujillo State, Venezuela. An experimental square latin design with evaluation period of twelve days was used. Measurements included forage intake for species which were chemically analyzed in terms of chemical composition (CP, NDF, ADF, lignin, cellulose, Calcium, Phosphorus, ash, secondary metabolites presences and total phenols, condensed tannins and tripsin inhibitors level). C. tinctoria (0.334 kg DM) showed the greatest preference, with significant differences (P<0.05) in relation to the others. M. alba (0.271 kg DM) and P. pedicellare (0.255 kg DM) followed by G. sepium (0.183 kg DM), G. ulmifolia (0.164 kg DM), C. alba (0.157 kg DM), T. gigantea (0.156 kg DM) and T. diversifolia (0.141 kg DM). L. leucocephala (0.079 kg DM) and M. oleifera (0.067 kg DM) showed low preference. The lowest intake was observed with A. indica (0.025 kg DM) and S. saman (0.022 kg DM). During the experimental period different intake tendencies were observed in the which could be associated to the chemical composition of forages, specifically the presence of secondary metabolites with possible dissuasive properties. The results emphasize the importance of studies of animal preference in the initial characterization of trees and shrubs with fodder potential.

URL:

No url

c

149.

Authors:

Pinheiro Ferreira, Paulo Michel
Farias, Davi Felipe
de Abreu Oliveira, Jose Tadeu
Urano Carvalho, Ana de Fatima

Title:

Moringa oleifera: bioactive compounds and nutritional potential

Publication:

REVISTA DE NUTRICAO-BRAZILIAN JOURNAL OF NUTRITION

Abstract:

This work aims to review the nutritional properties of the Moringa oleifera tree, emphasizing its man constituents and nutritional applications for humans and animals. Moringa oleifera (Moringaceae) is a cosmopolitan tree that grows in many tropical countries showing uncountable folk uses due to its various nutritional and pharmacological applications. The young leaves, flowers and pods are common vegetables in the Asian diet. All parts of this plant are renewable sources of tocopherols (gamma and alpha), phenolic compounds, beta-carotene, vitamin C and total proteins, including the essentials sulfur amino acids, methionine and cysteine. The seed protein and fat contents are higher than those reported for important grain legumes and soybean varieties, respectively. Unsaturated fatty acids, especially oleic acid, carbohydrates and minerals are present in the seed in reasonable amounts. In general, there are low concentrations of antinutritional factors in the plant, although the seeds possess glucosionolates (65.5 mu mol/g dry matter), phytates (41g/kg) and hemagglutination activity while the leaves have appreciable amounts of saponins (80g/kg), besides low quantity of phytates (21g/kg) and tannins (12g/kg). Taking into consideration the excellent nutritional properties, the low toxicity of the seeds and the excellent ability of the plant to adopt to poor soils and dry climates, Moringa oleifera can be an alternative to some legumious seeds as a source of high-quality protein, oil and antioxidant compounds and a way to treat water in rural areas where appropriate water resources are not available.

URL:

http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?pid=S1415-52732008000400007&script=sci_arttext&tlng=en

 

150.

Authors:

Ojiako, F. O.
Adesiyun, A. A.

Title:

Comparison of Moringa oleifera Lam seed powder and actellic dust (2%) in the control of Callosobruchus maculatus F. (Coleoptera : Bruchidae) on stored cowpea and their effects on nutritional and organoleptic characteristics

Publication:

RESEARCH ON CROPS

Abstract:

Horse-radish (Moringa oleifera Lam) seed powders were evaluated in the laboratory relative to a conventional storage chemical, actellic 2% dust (Pirimiphos-methyl) as protectants of stored cowpea against the cowpea bruchid, Callosobruchus maculatus F. M. oleifera was tested at four rates (2.5, 5.0 and 10.0 g/ 100 g seed including a control, i. e. 0.0 g). Actellic dust was applied at the rate of 1.0, 2.0, 3.0 g/ 100 g seed and 0.0 g/ 100 g seed as control. Data were collected over a seven month period on percentage mortality, oviposition, adult emergence and seed damage. The seed damage data were used to estimate the weevil perforation index (WPI). All data were analyzed for variance at P <= 0.05. M. oleifera performed comparatively well with actellic dust and the efficacy was dose-related. Actellic dust at the lowest rate inflicted adult mortality of 90-100% in the first 48 h after treatment and prevented oviposition by between 95-100% over the first five months of storage compared to the control. M. oleifera at the highest rate of 10.0 g per 100 g seed caused mortality upto 63.3% in 48 h and also reduced oviposition by between 50-80.0%, while adult emergence and seed damage were reduced between 35.4 and 90.3% with a WPIof between 3.3 and 40.0%. Proximate analysis and germination test experiments showed that the plant product and actellic dust increased the moisture and crude fibre content, decreased the crude protein content but had no significant effect on the viability of the stored cowpea seeds. Organoleptic tests showed that the treatment materials had no significant negative effect on taste, odour, texture, appearance and overall acceptability of cooked cowpea seeds after six months of storage. The results generally indicated that the powdered form of M. oleifera seed at the highest rates (i. e. 5.0 and 10.0 g/ 100 g seed) gave significant protection of cowpea seeds against the cowpea bruchid comparable to actellic dust when applied prophylactically.

URL:

No url

 

151.

Authors:

Selvakumar, F.
Natarajan, P.

Title:

Hepato-Protective activity of Moringa oleifera Lam Leaves in Carbon tetrachloride induced Hepato-Toxicity in Albino Rats.

Publication:

PHARMACOGNOSY MAGAZINE

Abstract:

The present study was conducted to evaluate the hepato-protective activity of methanolic and chloroform extract of moringa oleifera leaves are evaluated in CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in albino rats. Silymarin (200mg/kg) was given as reference standard. The methanolic and chloroform extracts of leaves of moringa oleifera have shown very significant hepatoprotection against CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in albino rats in reducing Serum total bilirubin, direct bilirubin, SGPT and SGOT levels.

URL:

No url

 

152.

Authors:

Akinbode, O. A.
Ikotun, T.

Title:

Efficacy of certain plant extracts against seed-borne infection of Collectotrichum destructivum on cowpea (Vigna uniguculata)

Publication:

AFRICAN JOURNAL OF BIOTECHNOLOGY

Abstract:

Aqueous extracts of leaves of Moringa oleifera Lam, Vernonia amygdalina and Annona muricata were evaluated for the control of Collectotrichum destructivum on seeds of cowpea (Vigna uniguculata). The seeds were soaked in sterile distilled water extract (10, 20 and 30%, w/v) of the leaves for 6, 12 and 18 h. All these plant extracts had significant inhibitory growth effect on the fungal pathogen. M. oleifera extract was more effective than other plant extracts and compared favorably with benomyl in the control of the pathogen.

URL:

http://ajol.info/index.php/ajb/article/view/59411

 

153.

Authors:

Jabeen, Raheela
Shahid, Muhammad
Jamil, Amer
Ashraf, Muhammad

Title:

MICROSCOPIC EVALUATION OF THE ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF SEED EXTRACTS OF MORINGA OLEIFERA

Publication:

PAKISTANJOURNAL OF BOTANY

Abstract:

Seed extracts of Moringa oleifera were assayed for the evaluation of antimicrobial activity against bacterial (Pasturella mullocida, Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis and Staphlocuccus aureus) and fungal (Fusarium solani and Rhizopus solani) strains. The crude, supernatant, residue and dialyzed samples inhibited the growth of all microbs to various extents. The zones of growth inhibition showed greater sensitivity against the bacterial strains as compared to the fungal strains. The extracts worked in dose dependent manner and resulted in crippled and distorted hyphae and apical branching in fungi. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) extracts revealed that Pasturella multocida and Bacillus subtilis were most sensitive strains. However, the activity of the extracts was antagonized by cations (Na+, K+, Mg2+ and Ca2+). Maximum activity was found between temperature 4-37 degrees C and pH 7.

URL:

http://pakbs.org/pjbot/PDFs/40(4)/PJB40(4)1349.pdf

 

154.

Authors:

Beltran-Heredia, Jesus
Martin, Jesus Sanchez

Title:

Azo dye removal by Moringa oleifera seed extract coagulation

Publication:

COLORATION TECHNOLOGY

Abstract:

In this paper, the ability of Moringa oleifera seed extract-among other natural coagulants-to remove several different types of dyes has been researched. Moringa oleifera has been demonstrated to have a high removal ability for anionic dyes. This study is particularly focused on testing the removal of an azo dye such as Chicago Sky Blue 6B (CSB). It has taken out the fast kinetic of coagulant action and the high potential of this coagulant agent to treat wastewater from dyestuff. Up to 99% of CSBremoval has been achieved with M. oleifera extract dosage of 150, 200 and 250 mg l(-1) for 100, 160 and 200 mg l(-1) of initial CSBconcentration, respectively. Temperature does not affect the coagulant process and a pH level greater than 8 has a negative influence. Lower CSBpercentage removal is achieved by increasing the initial dye concentration, but an optimum relationship between dye amount removed and M. oleifera extract amount has been established and it appears to be between 0.7 and 0.9, depending on the initial dye concentration and the bulk of the remaining dye concentration.

URL:

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1478-4408.2008.00158.x/abstract

 

155.

Authors:

Oduro, Ibok
Ellis, W. O.
Owusu, Deborah

Title:

Nutritional potential of two leafy vegetables: Moringa oleifera and Ipomoea batatas leaves

Publication:

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH ANDESSAYS

Abstract:

Levels of some nutrients in Moringa oleifera leaves as well as seven varieties of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) leaves were determined using standard analytical methods. Crude protein ranged from 16.78 – 25.39%; crude fibre from 9.75 – 12.14%; crude fat from 0.38 – 1.91%; ash content from 8.71 – 11.60%; moisture content (fwb) ranged from 80.16 – 88.20%; carbohydrate values from 53.29 – 59.01%; and calorific values ranged from 1344.00 – 1399.00 kJ/g (316.66-329.76 cal/g) for the sweet potato leaves. For M. oleifera leaves, crude protein was 27.51%, crude fibre was 19.25%, crude fat was 2.23%, ash content was 7.13%, moisture content was 76.53%, carbohydrate content was 43.88%, and the calorific value was 1296.00 kJ/g (305.62 cal/g). Elemental analysis of the leaves in mg/100g dry matter (DM) indicates the sweet potato leaves contained appreciable levels of calcium (1310.52-1402.27) and iron (9.62-23.02). Calcium and iron content of M. oleifera also in mg/100 g (DM) were 2,009.00 and 28.29, respectively. These results reveal that the leaves contain an appreciable amount of nutrients and can be included in diets to supplement our daily nutrient needs.

URL:

http://www.colmoringa.com/Textosdeinteres/Evaluacion%20Nutricional%20-%20INGLES.pdf

 

156.

Authors:

Benedito, Clarisse Pereira
Cardoso Ribeiro, Maria Clarete
Torres, Salvador Barros

Title:

Salinity in the germination and initial development stage of moringa (Moringa oleifera Lam.) seeds and seedlings

Publication:

REVISTA CIENCIA AGRONOMICA

Abstract:

This work was done to evaluate germination and the initial development stage of moringa (Moringa oleifera Lam.) plants in different levels of salinity of irrigation water. The study was carried out at the Laboratory of Botany of the UFERSA, from March to May 2006. The treatments were organized in a completely randomized design, with three levels of electrical conductivity of irrigation water (0.61; 10; 20 and 30 dS m(-1)), with four replications. Evaluation of speed of emergence-index, height of the aerial part of the seedling, dry mass of the aerial part of the seedling and seedling emergence, were done. The salinity intervened with all the parameters evaluated in the test of germination of the moringa; to the measure that, in concentrations from 30 dS m(-1) is harmful to seed germination and development of moringa seedlings.

URL:

No url

 

157.

Authors:

Moravec, C. M.
Bradford, K. J.
Laca, E. A.

Title:

Water relations of drumstick tree seed (Moringa oleifera): imbibition, desiccation, and sorption isotherms

Publication:

SEED SCIENCE ANDTECHNOLOGY

Abstract:

Interest in seed propagation of drumstick, tree (Moringa oleifera) has created a need for information about the water relationships of its seeds. Thus, we studied the imbibition and desiccation kinetics and adsorption/desorption isotherms of drumstick tree seeds. Seeds absorbed water readily when imbibed at 23 degrees C. After 17 h of exposure to an atmosphere of 100% relative humidity (RH). seed moisture content increased from 10 to 150% on a dry weight basis (dwb). Seeds lost water rapidly in a 1% RH still-air environment, and returned to their original seed moisture content in 24 h, indicating seed covering tissues are highly permeable to water. Adsorption and desorption equilibrium moisture content curves at 25 degrees C were determined using the dynamic gravimetric method. Drumstick tree seeds equilibrated at relatively low moisture contents over all humidities, remaining below 10% (dwb) at RH levels below 80%. Five equations that are used to model seed moisture content as a function of RH were fit to the data using a non-linear regression method (modified Henderson, modified Chung-Pfost, modified Guggenheim-Anderson-de Boer, modified Halsey, and D’Arey-Watt). The D’Arey-Watt model resulted in the best fit for predicting the seed moisture content of drumstick tree seeds. In humid environments. drying seeds, before long-term storage may increase the longevity of stored drumstick tree seeds.

URL:

http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/ista/sst/2008/00000036/00000002/art00005

 

158.

Authors:

Boucher, J.
Chabloz, C.
Lex, O.
Marison, I. W.

Title:

Oleaginous seeds, press-cake and seed husks for the biosorption of metals

Publication:

JOURNAL OF WATER SUPPLY RESEARCH ANDTECHNOLOGY-AQUA

Abstract:

The press-cake (PC) of oleaginous species (Brassica napus, Moringa oleifera, Glycine max) has been investigated as a biosorbent for metals removal from contaminated water.
Sorption isotherms for copper (Cu) have been established for different pH values and fitted with Langmuir isotherms. The maximum sorption capacity was observed at pH 5 (q(max) = 11.5 mg/g). The press-cake has been fractionated into water-soluble components, husks and the remaining solid residue. From these fractions the husks are responsible for the largest part of the sorption activity (q(max) 36.6 mg/g). The sorption mechanism was shown to be complex, involving proton exchange, chemisorption and calcium exchange. FTIR experiments showed that hydroxyl groups are involved in the metal binding.
The findings show that in the removal of toxic metals, the use of oleaginous seed by-products represent a low cost, domestic and environmentally friendly technology, from which the metals, in concentrated form, may be readily recovered.

URL:

http://md1.csa.com/partners/viewrecord.php?requester=gs&collection=TRD&recid=200901410001594CE&q=&uid=790284667&setcookie=yes

 

159.

Authors:

Omar, Fatehah Mohd
Rahman, Nik Norulaini Nik Abdul
Ahmad, Anees

Title:

COD reduction in semiconductor wastewater by natural and commercialized coagulants using response surface methodology

Publication:

WATER AIRANDSOIL POLLUTION

Abstract:

A coagulation treatment study was conducted using both natural (sago and potato flour) and commercial (poly aluminum chloride and aluminum sulfate) coagulants in semiconductor wastewater. The effects for settling time and dosage of the coagulants as well as their interactions on the reduction of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and turbidity were investigated using a three level factorial design, Response Surface Methodology (RSM). Sago concentration showed more influence on the COD and turbidity reduction than settling time, with concentrations lower than 1.5 g L-1 giving the better reduction. The interaction of settling time and concentration on the COD and turbidity were observed when using potato starch. Concentrations higher than 1.5 g L-1 potato starch reduced the COD and turbidity better. The polyaluminium chloride and ammonium sulphate revealed that lower concentrations (0.02-1.0 g L-1) and longer settling time (30-60 min) gave the greatest reduction in COD and turbidity.

URL:

http://www.springerlink.com/content/9875t35r67768563/

 

160.

Authors:

Kleiman, Robert
Ashley, David A.
Brown, James H.

Title:

Comparison of two seed oils used in cosmetics, moringa and marula

Publication:

INDUSTRIAL CROPSANDPRODUCTS

Abstract:

Comparison of the seed oil of Moringa pterygosperma (moringa) and Sclerocarya birrea (marula) showed a marked difference in fatty acid composition and oxidative stability. Moringa, with 1000 ppm tocopherols, had an oil stability index (OSI) of 133 h at 110,C while marula with 1000 ppm tocopherols yielded 37 h at 110 degrees C. This correlated well with the fatty acid composition of these two oils. Moringa had less than 1% polyunsaturates and marula had 6.7% of these oxidatively unstable materials. In addition, fatty acid compositions of seven species of moringa are presented. All of these species had levels of behenic acid ranging from 1 to 7% with oleic acid levels from 68 to 79%. The highest amount of polyunsatures was found in the moringa species was in Moringa drouhardii with 3.6%.

URL:

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science

 

161.

Authors:

Khatun, Shahanaz
Ashraduzzman, M.
Absar, N.
Pervin, F.
Ali, M. Abbas
Bari, Luthfunnesa
Karim, M. R.
Hassan, Parvez

Title:

Purification and characterization of three galactose specific lectins from Sajna (Moringa oleifera L.) leaves

Publication:

JOURNAL OF THE CHINESE CHEMICAL SOCIETY

Abstract:

Three lectins designated as SLL-1, SLL-2 and SLL-3 were purified from small sized Sajna (Moringa oletfera L.) leaves by get filtration of 100% ammonium sulfate saturated crude protein extract on Sephadex G-75 followed by ion-exchange chromatography on DEAE and affinity chromatography on Sepharose-4B. The molecular weight of the lectins SLL-1, SLL-2 and SLL-3 were 1,55,000, 1,15,000 and 85,000, respectively, as determined by gel filtration on Sephadex G-150 and 1,60,000; 1,20,000 and 85,500, respectively, by SDS-polyacrylamide slab gel electrophoresis. SLL-1 and SLL-2 are dimer in nature held together by disulfide bond (s), while SLL-3 is a monomer. The lectins agglutinated specifically rat red blood cells and the agglutination was inhibited specifically by methyl-alpha-D-galactopyranoside, methyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside and D-galactose. The lectins SLL-1, SLL-2 and SLL-3 contain 3.9, 3.4 and 2.8% neutral sugar, respectively, and the sugar compositions were glucose for SLL-1, mannose for SLL-2 and SLL-3 contained either N-acetyl-D-glucosamine or N-acetyl-D-galactosamine or both. The lectins exhibited cytotoxicity in brine shrimp lethality bioassay.

URL:

http://nr.stpi.org.tw/ejournal/ChiChemSociety/2007/EJ52-2007-357.pdf

 

162.

Authors:

Rashid, Umer
Anwar, Farooq
Moser, Bryan R.
Knothe, Gerhard

Title:

Moringa oleifera oil: A possible source of biodiesel

Publication:

BIORESOURCE TECHNOLOGY

Abstract:

Biodiesel is an alternative to petroleum-based conventional diesel fuel and is defined as the mono-alkyl esters of vegetable oils and animal fats. Biodiesel has been prepared from numerous vegetable oils, such as canola (rapeseed), cottonseed, palm, peanut, soybean and sunflower oils as well as a variety of less common oils. In this work, Moringa oleifera oil is evaluated for the first time as potential feedstock for biodiesel. After acid pre-treatment to reduce the acid value of the M. oleifera oil, biodiesel was obtained by a standard transesterification procedure with methanol and an alkali catalyst at 60 degrees C and alcohol/oil ratio of 6: 1. M. oleifera oil has a high content of oleic acid (>70%) with saturated fatty acids comprising most of the remaining fatty acid profile. As a result, the methyl esters (biodiesel) obtained from this oil exhibit a high cetane number of approximately 67, one of the highest found for a biodiesel fuel. Other fuel properties of biodiesel derived from M. oleifera such as cloud point, kinematic viscosity and oxidative stability were also determined and are discussed in light of biodiesel standards such as ASTMD6751 and EN 14214. The H-1 NMRspectrum of M. oleifera methyl esters is reported. Overall, M. oleifera oil appears to be an acceptable feedstock for biodiesel.

URL:

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science

 

163.

Authors:

Fakurazi, S.
Hairuszah, I.
Nanthini, U.

Title:

Moringa oleifera Lam prevents acetaminophen induced liver injury through restoration of glutathione level

Publication:

FOOD ANDCHEMICAL TOXICOLOGY

Abstract:

Initiation of acetaminophen (APAP) toxicities is believed to be promoted by oxidative stress during the event of overdosage. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the hepatoprotective action of Moringa oleifera Lam (MO), an Asian plant of high medicinal value, against a single high dose of APAP. Groups of five male Sprague-Dawley rats were pre-administered with MO (200 and 800 mg/kg) prior to a single dose of APAP (3 g/kg body weight; p.o). Silymarin was used as an established hepatoprotective drug against APAP induced liver injury. The hepato protective activity of MO extract was observed following significant histopathological analysis and reduction of the level of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in groups pretreated with MO compared to those treated with APAP alone. Meanwhile, the level of glutathione (GSH) was found to be restored in MO-treated animals compared to the groups treated with APAP alone. These observations were comparable to the group pretreated with silymarin prior to APAP administration. Group that was treated with APAP alone exhibited high level of transaminases and ALP activities besides reduction in the GSHlevel. The histological hepatocellular deterioration was also evidenced. The results from the present study suggested that the leaves of MO can prevent hepatic injuries from APAP induced through preventing the decline of glutathione level.

URL:

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18514995


164.

Authors:

Mahajan, Shailaja G.
Mehta, Anita A.

Title:

Effect of Moringa oleifera Lam. seed extract on ovalbumin-induced airway inflammation in guinea pigs

Publication:

INHALATION TOXICOLOGY

Abstract:

To determine the therapeutic potential of herbal medicine Moringa oleifera Lam. family: Moringaceae in the control of allergic diseases, the efficacy of the ethanolic extract of the seeds of the plant (MOEE) against ovalbumin (OVA)-induced airway inflammation in guinea pigs was examined. During the experimental period, the test drugs (MOEE or dexamethasone) were administered by oral route prior to challenge with aerosolized 0.5% OVA. Bronchoconstriction tests were performed and respiratory parameters (i.e., tidal volume and respiratory rate) were measured. At the end of experiment, blood was collected from each animal to perform total and differential counts and serum was used for assay of IL-4, IL-6, and TNF alpha. Lung lavage fluid (BAL) was collected for estimation of cellular content and cytokine levels. Lung tissue histamine assays were performed using the homogenate of one lobe from each animal; a separate lobe and the trachea were subjected to histopathology to measure the degree of any airway inflammation. The results suggest that in OVA-sensitized control animals that did not receive either drug, tidal volume (V-t) was decreased, respiration rate (f) was increased, and both the total and differential cell counts in blood and BAL fluid were increased significantly. MOEE-treatment of sensitized hosts resulted in improvement in all parameters except BAL TNFa and IL-4. Moreover, MOEE-treatment also showed protection against acetylcholine-induced broncho-constriction and airway inflammation which was confirmed by histological observations. The results of these studies confirm the traditional claim for the usefulness of this herb in the treatment of allergic disorders like asthma.

URL:

http://informahealthcare.com/doi/abs/10.1080/08958370802027443

 

 

165.

Authors:

Kumari, Pushpa
Srivastava, M. M.

Title:

Characterization of protein content of shelled Moringa oleifera seeds used for decontamination of arsenic from water bodies

Publication:

NATIONALACADEMYSCIENCE LETTERS-INDIA

Abstract:

Shelled Moringa oleifera seeds (SMOS) has been explored as biomaterial for the decontamination of arsenic from waste water. SMOS derived protein is proposed as bioactive principle. Derived protein has been characterized for its electrophoretic nature [79.3% cationic and 20.7% anionic polypeptide]. Cationic polypeptide of the molecular weight (6-16kDa) seems to be a major contributor.

URL:

http://cat.inist.fr/?aModele=afficheN&cpsidt=20752865

 

166.

Authors:

Qudsieh, I. Y.
I-Razi, A. Fakhru
Kabbashi, N. A.
Mirghani, M. E. S.
Fandi, K. G.
Alam, M. Z.
Muyibi, S. A.
Nasef, M. M.

Title:

Preparation and characterization of a new coagulant based on the sago starch biopolymer and its application in water turbidity removal

Publication:

JOURNAL OF APPLIED POLYMER SCIENCE

Abstract:

A new organic coagulant, sago starch (SS)graft-polyacrylamide (PAm), was prepared by the cericion-induced redox polymerization of acrylamide (Am) onto SS at room temperature. The effects of the variation of the concentration of Am and the initiator on the percentages of yield and total conversion were investigated. The chemical composition, viscosity, and side-chain-average molecular weight of the obtained graft copolymers were determined. The newly obtained coagulant was tested for the treatment of the turbidity of water. The SS-g-PAm coagulants were found to achieve water turbidity removal up to 96.6%. The results of this study suggest that SS-gPAm copolymer is a potential coagulant for reducing turbidity during water treatment.

URL:

http://materi.galih.co.cc/All%20About%20Sago/Sago%20Starch%20Coagullant.pdf

 

167.

Authors:

du Toit, Elsa S.
Muhl, Quintin
Robbertse, Petrus Johannes

Title:

Moringa oleifera Lam. (Horseradish tree) growth performance under three temperature regimes

Publication:

HORTSCIENCE

Abstract:

No abstract available

URL:

No url

 

168.

Authors:

Miller, Sarah M.
Fugate, Ezekiel J.
Craver, Vinka Oyanedel
Smith, James A.
Zimmerman, Julie B.

Title:

Toward understanding the efficacy and mechanism of Opuntia spp. as a natural coagulant for potential application in water treatment

Publication:

ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY

Abstract:

Historically, there is evidence to suggest that communities in the developing world have used plant-based materials as one strategy for purifying drinking water. In this study, the coagulant properties of Opuntia spp., a species of cactus, are quantitatively evaluated for the first time. Opuntia spp. was evaluated for turbidity removal from synthetic water samples, and steps were made toward elucidating the underlying coagulation mechanism. In model turbid water using kaolin clay particles at pH 10, Opuntia spp. reduced turbidity by 98% for a range of initial turbidities. This is similar to the observed coagulation activities previously described for Moringa oleifera, a widely studied natural coagulant Although it has been reported that Moringa oleifera predominantly operates through charge neutralization, comparison of zeta potential measurements and transmission electron microscopy images of flocs formed by Opuntia spp. suggest that these natural coagulants operate through different mechanisms. It is suggested that Opuntia spp. operates predominantly through a bridging coagulation mechanism. Once optimized, application of these readily available plants as a part of point-of-use water treatment technology may offer a practical, inexpensive, and appropriate solution for producing potable water in some developing communities.

URL:

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18605544


169.

Authors:

Kwaambwa, H. M.
Maikokera, R.

Title:

Infrared and circular dichroism spectroscopic characterisation of secondary structure components of a water treatment coagulant protein extracted from Moringa oleifera seeds

Publication:

COLLOIDS ANDSURFACES B-BIOINTERFACES

Abstract:

The secondary structure of a water treatment coagulant protein extracted from Moringa oleifera (MO) seeds has been investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) in the dried state, and by circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy. The FTIR and CD spectra indicate that the secondary structure of the protein is dominated by alpha-helix. The FTIR spectrum recorded two distinct and strong absorption bands at 1656 cm(-1) and 1542 cm(-1), in the usual range of absorption of helices of proteins. The CID spectrum showed the shape of mainly alpha-helical secondary structure (estimated to be 58 +/- 4%) characteristic of negative ellipticity bands near 222 nm and 208 nm and a positive band at 192 nm. The beta-sheet structure composition was estimated to be 10 +/- 3% whereas unordered structures were around 33%. Changes in solution pH affected the protein secondary structure significantly only at pH values above 10, as indicated by CD spectra, whereas ionic strength had minimal effect. CD data also showed that sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) interacts with the coagulant protein and modifies the protein conformation. The surfactant-induced conformational change of the coagulant protein was confirmed by quenching of tryptophan fluorescence of the protein.

URL:

No url

 

170.

Authors:

Vieira, Hugo
Garofalo Chaves, Lucia Helena
Viegas, Ricardo Almeida

Title:

Nutrient accumulation in moringa (Moringa oleifera Lam) seedlings in response to macronutrient omission

Publication:

REVISTA CIENCIA AGRONOMICA

Abstract:

Moringa oleifera. Lam belongs to Moringaceae family and it is well adapted to and and semiarid conditions and it is largely used as ornamental plant in parks and gardens, as animal feeding, as human diet and as medicine. Since, research information about this plant is rare, the current work aimed to evaluate nutrient accumulation in roots and shoot system of Moringa oleifera Lain seedlings, growing hidroponicaly, under condition of macronutrient omission. The used treatments were: (1) nutritive solution containing all required macronutrients (experimental control) or lacking (2) N; (3) P; (4) K; (5) Ca; (6) Mg and (7) S. Nitrogen and K were the most accumulated macronutrients in the plants followed by Ca, S, P and Mg. The omitted nutrients of the nutritive solution presented the lowest concentrations in the plants. The lack of all the elements, except P, increased the concentration of P in the plants. The omission of Ca and K of the nutritive solution supported the increase of the Mg concentration in the plants. The increase of the Ca concentration in the plants was helped by the omission of K and Mg. The K, Ca and Mg accumulation in the tissues decreased with lack of N in the nutritive solution. The concentrations of P and N in all the parts of the plants increased and decreased with the omission of S in the nutrient solution, respectively.

URL:

http://agris.fao.org/agris-search/search/display.do?f=2009/BR/BR0802.xml;BR2008005873

 

171.

Authors:

Agrawal, Babita
Mehta, Anita

Title:

Antiasthmatic activity of Moringa oleifera Lam: A clinical study

Publication:

INDIAN JOURNAL OF PHARMACOLOGY

Abstract:

The present study was carried out to investigate the efficacy and safety of seed kernels of Moringa oleifera in the treatment of bronchial asthma. Twenty patients of either sex with mild-to-moderate asthma were given finely powdered dried seed kernels in dose of 3 g for 3 weeks. The clinical efficacy with respect to symptoms and respiratory functions were assessed using a spirometer prior to and at the end of the treatment. Hematological parameters were not changed markedly by treatment with M. oleifera. However, the majority of patients showed a significant increase in hemoglobin (Hb) values and Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) was significantly reduced. Significant improvement was also observed in symptom score and severity of asthmatic attacks. Treatment with the drug for 3 weeks produced significant improvement in forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in one second, and peak expiratory flow rate values by 32.97 +/- 6.03%, 30.05 +/- 8.12%, and 32.09 +/- 11.75%, respectively, in asthmatic subjects. Improvement was also observed in % predicted values. None of the patients showed any adverse effects with M. oleifera. The results of the present study suggest the usefulness of M. oleifera seed kernel in patients of bronchial asthma.

URL:

http://www.bioline.org.br/request?ph08007

 

172.

Authors:

Mahajan, Shailaja G.
Mali, Ravindra G.
Mehta, Anita A

Title:

Protective effect of ethanolic extract of seeds of Moringa oleifera Lam. against inflammation associated with development of arthritis in rats

Publication:

JOURNAL OF IMMUNOTOXICOLOGY

Abstract:

The present investigation was carried out to study the antiarthritic activity of ethanolic extract of seeds of Moringa oleifera Lam. (MOEE) in adjuvant-induced arthritis in adult female Wistar rats. During the experimental period, body weight, paw edema volume (primary lesion) and arthritic index (secondary lesion) was observed. On the 21st day, serum from each animal was used for estimation of Rheumatoid Factor (RF) value and levels of selected cytokines (TNF alpha, IL-1, and IL-6). Whole blood was used for measurement of erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR). Liver homogenate was utilized for assessment of oxidative stress and histopathology was performed to measure degree of inflammation in synovial joint. Our results suggest that, percentage reduction in body weight was less, paw edema volume and arthritic index score was decreased significantly as compared to diseased control animals. Serum levels of RF, TNF-alpha, IL-1, and IL-6 also showed decreased levels as compared to those in the diseased control group. Treatment with MOEE also altered oxidative stress in relation to its anti-inflammatory activity. Histopathological observations showed mild or less infiltration of lymphocytes, angiogenesis and synovial lining thickening. From all above results and observations, it can be concluded that Moringa oleifera possesses promising antiarthritic property.

URL:

http://informahealthcare.com/doi/abs/10.1080/15476910601115184?2

 

173.

Authors:

Mahajan, Shailaja G.
Mali, Ravindra G.
Mehta, Anita A.

Title:

Effect of Moringa oleifera Lam. seed extract on toulene diisocyanate-induced immune-mediated inflammatory responses in rats

Publication:

JOURNAL OF IMMUNOTOXICOLOGY

Abstract:

Moringa oleifera Lam. is a small tree cultivated throughout India. We have investigated the effect of ethanolic extract of seeds of Moringa oleifera (MOEE, an herbal remedy) on the potential prevention of immune-mediated inflammatory responses in toluene diisocyanate (TDIas antigen) -induced asthma in Wistar rats. Rats were divided into five different groups (n = 8/group): Group-I = unsensitized control; Group-II = TDIcontrot/vehicle; Group-III = dexamethasone (DXM) 2.5 mg/kg; and, Groups IV and V = 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg body weight [BW] of MOEE, respectively. All rats (except unsensitized controls) were sensitized by intranasal application of 10 % TDIto induce airway hypersensitivity. Animals in Groups II-V were given their respective drug treatment per os from 1 wk prior to initiation of sensitization until the day of final provocation with 5% TDI. After this last challenge, all rats were examined for hyperreactivity symptoms and then sacrificed to determine their total and differential leucocytes in blood and bronchoalveolar (BAL) fluid and levels of TNF alpha, IL-4, and IL-6 in their BAL and serum. Homogenates of one lung lobe from each animal were utilized to assess oxidative stress; a separate lobe underwent histologic examination to assess airway inflammatory status. The results suggest that asthmatic symptoms were found in TDIcontrol rats only, while both MOEE- and DXM-treated rats did not manifest any airway abnormality. In MOEE- and DXM-treated rats, neutrophil and eosinophil levels in the blood were decreased significantly; levels of total cells and each different cell in their BAL fluid were markedly decreased as compared to those in TDIcontrols. TNFa, IL-4, and IL-6 were predominant in serum as well as in BAL fluids in TDIcontrols, but these levels were reduced significantly by MOEE treatment. The antioxidant activity in relation to antiinflammatory activity of the extract and histopathological observations also reflected a protective effect. Based on the above findings and observations, it can be concluded that Moringa oleifera may possess some beneficial properties that act against chemically stimulated immune-mediated inflammatory responses that are characteristic of asthma in the rat.

URL:

http://informahealthcare.com/doi/abs/10.1080/15476910701337472

 

174.

Authors:

Mahajan, Shailaja G.
Mehta, Anita A.

Title:

Inhibitory action of ethanolic extract of seeds of Moringa oleifera Lam. on systemic and local anaphylaxis

Publication:

JOURNAL OF IMMUNOTOXICOLOGY

Abstract:

The current study characterizes the mechanism by which the seed extract of Moringa oleifera Lam (Moringaceae) decreases the mast cell-mediated immediate type hypersensitivity reaction. The immediate type hypersensitivity reaction is involved in many allergic diseases such as asthma and allergic rhinitis. Moringa oleifera, a shrub widely used in the traditional medicine in India, has been reported to possess anti-cancer, hypotensive, anti-arthritic, and anti-inflammatory activities. In the present study, the effects of the ethanolic extract of seeds of Moringa oleifera (MOEE-herbal remedy) on systemic and local anaphylaxis were investigated. The potential anti-anaphylactic effect of MOEE was studied in a mouse model of Compound 48/80-induced systemic anaphylactic shock. Passive cutaneous anaphylaxis activated by anti IgE-antibody was also used to assess the effect of MOEE. In addition, rat peritoneal mast cells (RPMC) were used to investigate the effect of MOEE on histamine release induced by compound 48/80. When administered 1 hr before 48/80 injection, MOEE at doses of 0.001-1.000 g/kg completely inhibited the inducible induced anaphylactic shock. MOEE significantly inhibited passive cutaneous anaphylaxis activated by anti-IgE antibody at a dose of I g/kg. When MOEE extract was given as pretreatment at concentrations ranging 0.1-100 mg/ml, the histamine release from the mast cells that was induced by the 48/80 was reduced in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggest a potential role for MOEE as a source of anti-anaphylactic agents for use in allergic disorders.

URL:

http://informahealthcare.com/doi/abs/10.1080/15476910701680137

 

175.

Authors:

Garcia, Danny Eugenio
Medina, Maria Gabriela
Clavero, Tyrone
Cova, Luis Jose
Dominguez, Carlos
Baldizan, Alfredo

Title:

Nutritional characterization of six fodder species foliage with emphasis in their polyphenolic profiles

Publication:

REVISTA CIENTIFICA-FACULTADDECIENCIAS VETERINARIAS

Abstract:

An experiment was carried out in order to evaluated the DM ruminal degradability parameters (a, b, a+b and c), 48 hours degradation of DM, CP and NDF and CP intestinal digestibility in matures sheep of Enterolobium contortisilicum, Lysiloma latisiliquum, Moringa oleifera, Morus alba, Schizolobium excelsum and Trichantera gigantea at Trujillo State, Venezuela. All forages showed substantial differences regarding proximal composition (P 0.05); while L. latisiliquum and S. excelsum showed the highest polyphenolic compounds level. E contortisilicum exhibited superior DM degradation (a: 31.1%) and M. alba showed considerable degradable fraction and degradation potential (b: 71.2% and a+b: 92.8%, respectively). The forages degradation rate not showed significant differences to each other (P>0.05). M. alba showed the highest 48 hours DM degradability (86.5%), CP (84.4%) and NDF (73.5%) and E. contortisilicum and M. oleifera a superior posruminal protein digestibility (39.0 y 37.8%, respectively). Based on their chemical compositions, the evaluated feed with higher potential to be used for fed ruminants are: E contortisilicum, M. oleifera, M. alba and T. gigantea. Its speculated that the lowest nutritive value of L. latisiliquum and S. excelsum for feeding ovines perhaps is due to the presence of polyphenolic compounds.

URL:

No url

 

176.

Authors:

Mathieu, Gueye
Meissa, Diouf

Title:

Traditional leafy vegetables in senegal: Diversity and medicinal uses

Publication:

AFRICAN JOURNAL OF TRADITIONAL COMPLEMENTARY ANDALTERNATIVE MEDICINES

Abstract:

Six administrative regions of Senegalwere investigated. Forty species of vegetable leaves which are traditionally consumed in Senegalhave been inventoried. All species are members of twenty-one families the most numerous of which are Amaranthaceae Juss., Malvaceae Juss., Moraceae Link., the Papilionaceae Giseke and Tiliaceae Juss. The species are subdivided into three groups: cultivated leafy vegetables, plants gathered annually, perennial sub-ligneous and ligneous species. The gathered species represent 67.5% of the inventory, 40.7% of which is ligneous. Cultivated species account for 32.5% of the inventory. The species are consumed for their medicinal properties, nutritive value and eating habits linked to specific ethnic traditions. During the drought years, with the scarcity of main food (millet, mays) consumption of leafy vegetables is high. All species reported except Sesuvium portulacastrum L. are consumed like vegetable herbs. The species of Hibiscus are eaten in spinach and condiment form while Sesuvium portulacastrum L is cooked in salad. Of the forty species examined, eleven are widely consumed. Within the entire study area, Hibiscus sabdariffa predominates among species consumed, followed by Moringa oleifera Lam. and Senna obtusifolia Link. A high consumption level of some species like amarante, Corchorus tridens L., Corchorus aestuans L., Leptadenia hastata Decne. and Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp is confined to certain areas. In addition to their consumption as vegetables, the medicinal uses of 57.5% of these is of primary importance. The most commonly exploited parts are, respectively, leaf (40%), roots (20%), and bark (13.3%). Among the numerous pathologies treated, abscess, constipation, and rheumatism are predominant followed by aphrodisiac uses. The Amaranthus spp. L., Leptadenia hastata Decne., Senna obtusifolia Link., Adansonia digitata L. and Tamarindus indica L. are species with multiple medicinal uses.

URL:

http://ajol.info/index.php/ajtcam/article/view/31239

 

177.

Authors:

Kajihara, Ryo
Nakatsu, Sayaka
Shiono, Tadahiko
Shibata, Kenya
Ishihara, Masako
Sakamoto, Koji
Muto, Norio

Title:

Antihypertensive effect of water extracts from leaves of Moringa oleifera Lam. on spontaneously hypertensive rats

Publication:

JOURNAL OF THE JAPANESE SOCIETY FOR FOOD SCIENCE ANDTECHNOLOGY-NIPPON SHOKUHIN KAGAKU KOGAKU KAISHI

Abstract:

The antihypertensive effect of water extracts from leaves of Moringa oleifera Lam. was studied in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Extracts (10 g of the dried leaves with 100 ml of water) were given to SHRby a single oral administration at 3ml/kg body weight or by repeated oral administrations at 3ml/kg body weight/day for 6 weeks. The water extracts contained 0.3 mg/ml of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). Although the single oral administration of the water extract could not reduce systolic blood pressure in SHR, repeated oral administration for 6 weeks resulted in significant decreases compared with the control. These results suggest that the daily intake of Moringa oleifera Lam. was effective for prevention against hypertension.

URL:

http://agris.fao.org/agris-search/search/display.do?f=2008/JP/JP0831.xml;JP2008003552

 

178.

Authors:

Anele, U. Y.
Arigbede, O. M.
Olanite, J. A.
Adekunle, I. O.
Jolaosho, A. O.
Onifade, O. S.
Oni, A. O.

Title:

Early growth and seasonal chemical composition of three indigenous multipurpose tree species (MPTS) in Abeokuta, Nigeria

Publication:

AGROFORESTRY SYSTEMS

Abstract:

A study was carried out to evaluate the growth parameters and nutritive qualities of Moringa oleifera, Millettia griffoniana and Pterocarpus santalinoides. The main objective of the study was to assess the potential of the MPTS in supplementing the feed of ruminant animals during the dry season when grasses are scarce and their quality generally fall short of animal requirements. Leaf samples were randomly collected from the trees for estimation of the proximate composition, neutral detergent fibre, acid detergent fibre and gas production using the in vitro technique. Samples were collected three times to represent seasonal variations as follows: November: Early Dry; February: Mid Dry and April: Late Dry seasons. Gas production was recorded at 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, 21, 24, 48, 72 and 96 h of incubation. Mortality rate was less than 5%. M. oleifera recorded the best overall growth respectively followed by P. santalinoides and M. griffoniana. P. santalinoides and M. oleifera retained more leaves in the dry season than M. griffoniana. The dry matter (DM) and ether extract (EE) contents of the MPTS were significantly (P < 0.05) affected by seasons and plant species while there were significant (P < 0.05) species effects on the CP and ADF values. The gas production values and the fermentation parameters indicated the presence of potentially degradable nutrients in the MPTS, which underscores the importance of the tree species as sources of nutrient for ruminant animals during the dry season.

URL:

http://www.springerlink.com/content/3w830m4538220m4k

 

179.

Authors:

de Oliveira Cruz, Marcos Wanderley
de Oliveira, Elenise Gonqalves
de Araujo Filho, Jaime Miguel
Ferreira Hipolito, Maria de Lourdes
Lima, Carolyny Batista

Title:

Efficiency evaluation of moringa seeds in the shrimp ponds effluents treatment

Publication:

REVISTA CIENCIA AGRONOMICA

Abstract:

The treatment Of effluents of the aquiculture has been seen as a form of reducing the negative impacts of the activity. The present Study was carried with the aimed of evaluate the efficiency of the aqueous extract of Moringa oleifera seeds in the treatment of shrimp Culture effluent. So, effluents of Litopenaeus vannamei ponds were cropped in aquariums and were treated with aqueous extract of moringa seed, in a quantity which kept relation of 0.5; 1.0 and 2.0 seeds L-1. Before and during 24 hours after addition of extract, the physical-chemical characteristics Of effluents were monitored. Flocculent process Could be seen after the addition of the extract and it reached the maximum point of clarification 24 hours late. Dissolved oxygen reached concentration close to zero after 20 hours. The alkalinity and pH decreased with doses and contact duration, but the values were between 168.0 and 153.3 mg L-1 and 7.93 and 7.13, respectively. Carbonic gas remained between 13.0 and 20 mg L-1, hardness between 328 and 296 mg L-1 and electrical conductivity between 1346.67 and 1270.33 mS cm(-1). The larger dose promoted a light increase in potassium, sulfate, bicarbonate and a light decrease in carbonate and chlorine.

URL:

http://agris.fao.org/agris-search/search/display.do?f=2008/BR/BR0717.xml;BR2007006468

 

180.

Authors:

Chumark, Pilaipark
Khunawat, Panya
Sanvarinda, Yupin
Phomchirasilp, Srichan
Morales, Noppawan Phumala
Phivthong-ngam, Laddawal
Ratanachamnong, Piyanee
Srisawat, Supath
Pongrapeeporn, Klai-upsorn S.

Title:

The in vitro and ex vivo antioxidant properties, hypolipidaemic and antiatherosclerotic activities of water extract of Moringa oleifera Lam. leaves

Publication:

JOURNAL OF ETHNOPHARMACOLOGY

Abstract:

Moringa oleifera is used in Thai traditional medicine as cardiotonic. Recent studies demonstrated its hypocholesterolaemic effect. However, to be clinically useful, more scientific data are needed. Aim of the Study: We investigated the antioxidant, hypolipidaemic and antiatherosclerotic activities of Moringa oleifera leaf extract.
Materials and Methods: Scavenging activity of the extract on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radicals (DPPH), and the inhibitory effect on Cu2+-induced low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation were determined in in vitro experiment. The effects of the extract on cholesterol levels, conjugated diene (CD) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and plaque formations in cholesterol-fed rabbits were investigated.

Results: We found that in scavenging DPPH radicals the extract and Trolox(R) had IC50 of 78.15 +/- 0.92 and 2.14 +/- 0.12 mu g/ml, respectively. The extract significantly (P < 0.05) prolonged the lag-time of CD formation and inhibited TBARS formation in both in vitro and ex vivo experiments in a dose-dependent manner. In hypercholesterol-fed rabbits, at 12 weeks of treatment, it significantly (P < 0.05) lowered the cholesterol levels and reduced the atherosclerotic plaque formation to about 50 and 86%, respectively. These effects were at degrees comparable to those of simvastatin.
Conclusions: The results indicate that this plant possesses antioxidant, hypolipidaemic and antiatherosclerotic activities and has therapeutic potential for the prevention of cardiovascular diseases

URL:

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science

 

181.

Authors:

Agrawal, Babita
Mehta, Anita

Title:

Antiasthmatic activity of Moringa oleifera Lam: A clinical study

Publication:

INDIAN JOURNAL OF PHARMACOLOGY

Abstract:

The present study was carried out to investigate the efficacy and safety of seed kernels of Moringa oleifera in the treatment of bronchial asthma. Twenty patients of either sex with mild-to-moderate asthma were given finely powdered dried seed kernels in dose of 3 g for 3 weeks. The clinical efficacy with respect to symptoms and respiratory functions were assessed using a spirometer prior to and at the end of the treatment. Hematological parameters were not changed markedly by treatment with M. oleifera. However, the majority of patients showed a significant increase in hemoglobin (Hb) values and Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) was significantly reduced. Significant improvement was also observed in symptom score and severity of asthmatic attacks. Treatment with the drug for 3 weeks produced significant improvement in forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in one second, and peak expiratory flow rate values by 32.97 +/- 6.03%, 30.05 +/- 8.12%, and 32.09 +/- 11.75%, respectively, in asthmatic subjects. Improvement was also observed in % predicted values. None of the patients showed any adverse effects with M. oleifera. The results of the present study suggest the usefulness of M. oleifera seed kernel in patients of bronchial asthma.

URL:

http://www.bioline.org.br/request?ph08007

 

182.

Authors:

Mahajan, Shailaja G.
Mali, Ravindra G.
Mehta, Anita A.

Title:

Protective effect of ethanolic extract of seeds of Moringa oleifera Lam. against inflammation associated with development of arthritis in rats

Publication:

JOURNAL OF IMMUNOTOXICOLOGY

Abstract:

The present investigation was carried out to study the antiarthritic activity of ethanolic extract of seeds of Moringa oleifera Lam. (MOEE) in adjuvant-induced arthritis in adult female Wistar rats. During the experimental period, body weight, paw edema volume (primary lesion) and arthritic index (secondary lesion) was observed. On the 21st day, serum from each animal was used for estimation of Rheumatoid Factor (RF) value and levels of selected cytokines (TNF alpha, IL-1, and IL-6). Whole blood was used for measurement of erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR). Liver homogenate was utilized for assessment of oxidative stress and histopathology was performed to measure degree of inflammation in synovial joint. Our results suggest that, percentage reduction in body weight was less, paw edema volume and arthritic index score was decreased significantly as compared to diseased control animals. Serum levels of RF, TNF-alpha, IL-1, and IL-6 also showed decreased levels as compared to those in the diseased control group. Treatment with MOEE also altered oxidative stress in relation to its anti-inflammatory activity. Histopathological observations showed mild or less infiltration of lymphocytes, angiogenesis and synovial lining thickening. From all above results and observations, it can be concluded that Moringa oleifera possesses promising antiarthritic property.

URL:

http://informahealthcare.com/doi/abs/10.1080/15476910601115184?2

 

183.

Authors:

Mahajan, Shailaja G.
Mali, Ravindra G.
Mehta, Anita A.

Title:

Effect of Moringa oleifera Lam. seed extract on toulene diisocyanate-induced immune-mediated inflammatory responses in rats

Publication:

JOURNAL OF IMMUNOTOXICOLOGY

Abstract:

Moringa oleifera Lam. is a small tree cultivated throughout India. We have investigated the effect of ethanolic extract of seeds of Moringa oleifera (MOEE, an herbal remedy) on the potential prevention of immune-mediated inflammatory responses in toluene diisocyanate (TDIas antigen) -induced asthma in Wistar rats. Rats were divided into five different groups (n = 8/group): Group-I = unsensitized control; Group-II = TDIcontrot/vehicle; Group-III = dexamethasone (DXM) 2.5 mg/kg; and, Groups IV and V = 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg body weight [BW] of MOEE, respectively. All rats (except unsensitized controls) were sensitized by intranasal application of 10 % TDIto induce airway hypersensitivity. Animals in Groups II-V were given their respective drug treatment per os from 1 wk prior to initiation of sensitization until the day of final provocation with 5% TDI. After this last challenge, all rats were examined for hyperreactivity symptoms and then sacrificed to determine their total and differential leucocytes in blood and bronchoalveolar (BAL) fluid and levels of TNF alpha, IL-4, and IL-6 in their BAL and serum. Homogenates of one lung lobe from each animal were utilized to assess oxidative stress; a separate lobe underwent histologic examination to assess airway inflammatory status. The results suggest that asthmatic symptoms were found in TDIcontrol rats only, while both MOEE- and DXM-treated rats did not manifest any airway abnormality. In MOEE- and DXM-treated rats, neutrophil and eosinophil levels in the blood were decreased significantly; levels of total cells and each different cell in their BAL fluid were markedly decreased as compared to those in TDIcontrols. TNFa, IL-4, and IL-6 were predominant in serum as well as in BAL fluids in TDIcontrols, but these levels were reduced significantly by MOEE treatment. The antioxidant activity in relation to antiinflammatory activity of the extract and histopathological observations also reflected a protective effect. Based on the above findings and observations, it can be concluded that Moringa oleifera may possess some beneficial properties that act against chemically stimulated immune-mediated inflammatory responses that are characteristic of asthma in the rat.

URL:

http://informahealthcare.com/doi/abs/10.1080/15476910701337472


184.

Authors:

Mahajan, Shailaja G.
Mehta, Anita A.

Title:

Inhibitory action of ethanolic extract of seeds of Moringa oleifera Lam. on systemic and local anaphylaxis

Publication:

JOURNAL OF IMMUNOTOXICOLOGY

Abstract:

The current study characterizes the mechanism by which the seed extract of Moringa oleifera Lam (Moringaceae) decreases the mast cell-mediated immediate type hypersensitivity reaction. The immediate type hypersensitivity reaction is involved in many allergic diseases such as asthma and allergic rhinitis. Moringa oleifera, a shrub widely used in the traditional medicine in India, has been reported to possess anti-cancer, hypotensive, anti-arthritic, and anti-inflammatory activities. In the present study, the effects of the ethanolic extract of seeds of Moringa oleifera (MOEE-herbal remedy) on systemic and local anaphylaxis were investigated. The potential anti-anaphylactic effect of MOEE was studied in a mouse model of Compound 48/80-induced systemic anaphylactic shock. Passive cutaneous anaphylaxis activated by anti IgE-antibody was also used to assess the effect of MOEE. In addition, rat peritoneal mast cells (RPMC) were used to investigate the effect of MOEE on histamine release induced by compound 48/80. When administered 1 hr before 48/80 injection, MOEE at doses of 0.001-1.000 g/kg completely inhibited the inducible induced anaphylactic shock. MOEE significantly inhibited passive cutaneous anaphylaxis activated by anti-IgE antibody at a dose of I g/kg. When MOEE extract was given as pretreatment at concentrations ranging 0.1-100 mg/ml, the histamine release from the mast cells that was induced by the 48/80 was reduced in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggest a potential role for MOEE as a source of anti-anaphylactic agents for use in allergic disorders.

URL:

http://informahealthcare.com/doi/abs/10.1080/15476910701680137

 

185.

Authors:

Garcia, Danny Eugenio
Medina, Maria Gabriela
Clavero, Tyrone
Cova, Luis Jose
Dominguez, Carlos
Baldizan, Alfredo

Title:

Nutritional characterization of six fodder species foliage with emphasis in their polyphenolic profiles

Publication:

REVISTA CIENTIFICA-FACULTADDECIENCIAS VETERINARIAS

Abstract:

An experiment was carried out in order to evaluated the DM ruminal degradability parameters (a, b, a+b and c), 48 hours degradation of DM, CP and NDF and CP intestinal digestibility in matures sheep of Enterolobium contortisilicum, Lysiloma latisiliquum, Moringa oleifera, Morus alba, Schizolobium excelsum and Trichantera gigantea at Trujillo State, Venezuela. All forages showed substantial differences regarding proximal composition (P 0.05); while L. latisiliquum and S. excelsum showed the highest polyphenolic compounds level. E contortisilicum exhibited superior DM degradation (a: 31.1%) and M. alba showed considerable degradable fraction and degradation potential (b: 71.2% and a+b: 92.8%, respectively). The forages degradation rate not showed significant differences to each other (P>0.05). M. alba showed the highest 48 hours DM degradability (86.5%), CP (84.4%) and NDF (73.5%) and E. contortisilicum and M. oleifera a superior posruminal protein digestibility (39.0 y 37.8%, respectively). Based on their chemical compositions, the evaluated feed with higher potential to be used for fed ruminants are: E contortisilicum, M. oleifera, M. alba and T. gigantea. Its speculated that the lowest nutritive value of L. latisiliquum and S. excelsum for feeding ovines perhaps is due to the presence of polyphenolic compounds.

URL:

No url

 

186.

Authors:

Mathieu, Gueye
Meissa, Diouf

Title:

Traditional leafy vegetables in senegal: Diversity and medicinal uses

Publication:

AFRICAN JOURNAL OF TRADITIONAL COMPLEMENTARY ANDALTERNATIVE MEDICINES

Abstract:

Six administrative regions of Senegalwere investigated. Forty species of vegetable leaves which are traditionally consumed in Senegalhave been inventoried. All species are members of twenty-one families the most numerous of which are Amaranthaceae Juss., Malvaceae Juss., Moraceae Link., the Papilionaceae Giseke and Tiliaceae Juss. The species are subdivided into three groups: cultivated leafy vegetables, plants gathered annually, perennial sub-ligneous and ligneous species. The gathered species represent 67.5% of the inventory, 40.7% of which is ligneous. Cultivated species account for 32.5% of the inventory. The species are consumed for their medicinal properties, nutritive value and eating habits linked to specific ethnic traditions. During the drought years, with the scarcity of main food (millet, mays) consumption of leafy vegetables is high. All species reported except Sesuvium portulacastrum L. are consumed like vegetable herbs. The species of Hibiscus are eaten in spinach and condiment form while Sesuvium portulacastrum L is cooked in salad. Of the forty species examined, eleven are widely consumed. Within the entire study area, Hibiscus sabdariffa predominates among species consumed, followed by Moringa oleifera Lam. and Senna obtusifolia Link. A high consumption level of some species like amarante, Corchorus tridens L., Corchorus aestuans L., Leptadenia hastata Decne. and Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp is confined to certain areas. In addition to their consumption as vegetables, the medicinal uses of 57.5% of these is of primary importance. The most commonly exploited parts are, respectively, leaf (40%), roots (20%), and bark (13.3%). Among the numerous pathologies treated, abscess, constipation, and rheumatism are predominant followed by aphrodisiac uses. The Amaranthus spp. L., Leptadenia hastata Decne., Senna obtusifolia Link., Adansonia digitata L. and Tamarindus indica L. are species with multiple medicinal uses.

URL:

http://ajol.info/index.php/ajtcam/article/view/31239

 

187.

Authors:

Kajihara, Ryo
Nakatsu, Sayaka
Shiono, Tadahiko
Shibata, Kenya
Ishihara, Masako
Sakamoto, Koji
Muto, Norio

Title:

Antihypertensive effect of water extracts from leaves of Moringa oleifera Lam. on spontaneously hypertensive rats

Publication:

JOURNAL OF THE JAPANESE SOCIETY FOR FOOD SCIENCE ANDTECHNOLOGY-NIPPON SHOKUHIN KAGAKU KOGAKU KAISHI

Abstract:

The antihypertensive effect of water extracts from leaves of Moringa oleifera Lam. was studied in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Extracts (10 g of the dried leaves with 100 ml of water) were given to SHRby a single oral administration at 3ml/kg body weight or by repeated oral administrations at 3ml/kg body weight/day for 6 weeks. The water extracts contained 0.3 mg/ml of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). Although the single oral administration of the water extract could not reduce systolic blood pressure in SHR, repeated oral administration for 6 weeks resulted in significant decreases compared with the control. These results suggest that the daily intake of Moringa oleifera Lam. was effective for prevention against hypertension.

URL:

http://agris.fao.org/agris-search/search/display.do?f=2008/JP/JP0831.xml;JP2008003552


188.

Authors:

Anele, U. Y.
Arigbede, O. M.
Olanite, J. A.
Adekunle, I. O.
Jolaosho, A. O.
Onifade, O. S.
Oni, A. O.

Title:

Early growth and seasonal chemical composition of three indigenous multipurpose tree species (MPTS) in Abeokuta, Nigeria

Publication:

AGROFORESTRY SYSTEMS

Abstract:

A study was carried out to evaluate the growth parameters and nutritive qualities of Moringa oleifera, Millettia griffoniana and Pterocarpus santalinoides. The main objective of the study was to assess the potential of the MPTS in supplementing the feed of ruminant animals during the dry season when grasses are scarce and their quality generally fall short of animal requirements. Leaf samples were randomly collected from the trees for estimation of the proximate composition, neutral detergent fibre, acid detergent fibre and gas production using the in vitro technique. Samples were collected three times to represent seasonal variations as follows: November: Early Dry; February: Mid Dry and April: Late Dry seasons. Gas production was recorded at 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, 21, 24, 48, 72 and 96 h of incubation. Mortality rate was less than 5%. M. oleifera recorded the best overall growth respectively followed by P. santalinoides and M. griffoniana. P. santalinoides and M. oleifera retained more leaves in the dry season than M. griffoniana. The dry matter (DM) and ether extract (EE) contents of the MPTS were significantly (P < 0.05) affected by seasons and plant species while there were significant (P < 0.05) species effects on the CP and ADF values. The gas production values and the fermentation parameters indicated the presence of potentially degradable nutrients in the MPTS, which underscores the importance of the tree species as sources of nutrient for ruminant animals during the dry season.

URL:

http://www.springerlink.com/content/3w830m4538220m4k/

 

189.

Authors:

de Oliveira Cruz, Marcos Wanderley
de Oliveira, Elenise Gonqalves
de Araujo Filho, Jaime Miguel
Ferreira Hipolito, Maria de Lourdes
Lima, Carolyny Batista

Title:

Efficiency evaluation of moringa seeds in the shrimp ponds effluents treatment

Publication:

REVISTA CIENCIA AGRONOMICA

Abstract:

The treatment of effluents of the aquiculture has been seen as a form of reducing the negative impacts of the activity. The present Study was carried with the aimed of evaluate the efficiency of the aqueous extract of Moringa oleifera seeds in the treatment of shrimp Culture effluent. So, effluents of Litopenaeus vannamei ponds were cropped in aquariums and were treated with aqueous extract of moringa seed, in a quantity which kept relation of 0.5; 1.0 and 2.0 seeds L-1. Before and during 24 hours after addition of extract, the physical-chemical characteristics of effluents were monitored. Flocculent process could be seen after the addition of the extract and it reached the maximum point of clarification 24 hours late. Dissolved oxygen reached concentration close to zero after 20 hours. The alkalinity and pH decreased with doses and contact duration, but the values were between 168.0 and 153.3 mg L-1 and 7.93 and 7.13, respectively. Carbonic gas remained between 13.0 and 20 mg L-1, hardness between 328 and 296 mg L-1 and electrical conductivity between 1346.67 and 1270.33 mS cm(-1). The larger dose promoted a light increase in potassium, sulfate, bicarbonate and a light decrease in carbonate and chlorine.

URL:

http://agris.fao.org/agris-search/search/display.do?f=2008/BR/BR0717.xml;BR2007006468

 

190.

Authors:

Chumark, Pilaipark
Khunawat, Panya
Sanvarinda, Yupin
Phomchirasilp, Srichan
Morales, Noppawan Phumala
Phivthong-ngam, Laddawal
Ratanachamnong, Piyanee
Srisawat, Supath
Pongrapeeporn, Klai-upsorn S.

Title:

The in vitro and ex vivo antioxidant properties, hypolipidaemic and antiatherosclerotic activities of water extract of Moringa oleifera Lam. leaves

Publication:

JOURNAL OF ETHNOPHARMACOLOGY

Abstract:

Moringa oleifera is used in Thai traditional medicine as cardiotonic. Recent studies demonstrated its hypocholesterolaemic effect. However, to be clinically useful, more scientific data are needed. Aim of the Study: We investigated the antioxidant, hypolipidaemic and antiatherosclerotic activities of Moringa oleifera leaf extract.
Materials and Methods: Scavenging activity of the extract on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radicals (DPPH), and the inhibitory effect on Cu2+-induced low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation were determined in in vitro experiment. The effects of the extract on cholesterol levels, conjugated diene (CD) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and plaque formations in cholesterol-fed rabbits were investigated.
Results: We found that in scavenging DPPH radicals the extract and Trolox(R) had IC50 of 78.15 +/- 0.92 and 2.14 +/- 0.12 mu g/ml, respectively. The extract significantly (P < 0.05) prolonged the lag-time of CD formation and inhibited TBARS formation in both in vitro and ex vivo experiments in a dose-dependent manner. In hypercholesterol-fed rabbits, at 12 weeks of treatment, it significantly (P < 0.05) lowered the cholesterol levels and reduced the atherosclerotic plaque formation to about 50 and 86%, respectively. These effects were at degrees comparable to those of simvastatin.
Conclusions: The results indicate that this plant possesses antioxidant, hypolipidaemic and antiatherosclerotic activities and has therapeutic potential for the prevention of cardiovascular diseases.

URL:

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science

 

191.

Authors:

Sajidu, S. M. I.
Persson, I.
Masamba, W. R. L.
Henry, E. M. T.

Title:

Mechanisms for biosorption of chromium(III), copper(II) and mercury(II) using water extracts of Moringa oleifera seed powder

Publication:

AFRICAN JOURNAL OF BIOTECHNOLOGY

Abstract:

In continuation of our work on heavy metal remediation using Moringa seed powder, this study examines the mechanisms of metal sorption on water extracts of Moringa oleifera ( MO) seed powder using extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS). Chromium( III) is hydrolysed to form a mixture of [Cr-3(OH) 4(H2O)(10)](5+) and [Cr(OHx)(2) <(OH)(2)>] n(n(2×-3)+) complexes, x = 1 or 2. The chromium( III) complexes are octahedral with mean Cr-O bond distance of 1.97(2) angstrom. Copper (II) forms complexes with ligands with oxygen and/or nitrogen donor atoms, most likely amino and carboxylate groups. Copper( II) retain the typical Jahn-Teller distortion with Cu-O/N bond distances of 1.97( 2) and 2.21(4) angstrom. Furthermore, a Cu center dot center dot center dot C distance at 2.96 angstrom, and a corresponding Cu-O-C 3-leg scattering path at 3.10 angstrom are observed as well, strongly supporting that a large fraction of carboxylate groups are bound to the copper( II) ion on the equatorial plane. Mercury ( II) forms mainly linear complexes with nitrogen donor ligands, d(Hg-N) = 2.15( 2) angstrom, most probably from amino groups in amino acids or proteins. This shows that the softer metal ions, copper( II) and mercury( II), form complexes with oxygen and/or nitrogen donor ligands in the MO extracts, while the harder and more highly charged chromium( III) ion becomes hydrolysed. The study therefore suggests that the successful biosorption of heavy metals by Moringa, a potential heavy metal removing agent, is attributable to its oxygen and nitrogen donating carboxylate and amino groups.

URL:

http://ajol.info/index.php/ajb/article/view/58541


192.

Authors:

Latif, Sajid
Anwar, Farooq

Title:

Quality assessment of Moringa concanensis seed oil extracted through solvent and aqueous-enzymatic techniques

Publication:

GRASAS Y ACEITES

Abstract:

The composition and quality of the M. concanensis seed oil extracted through an aqueous-enzyme-assisted technique, using three commercial enzyme-mixtures (Natuzyme, Kemzyme, and Feedzyme) was compared to those of the control-, (without enzymes) and solvent-extracted oils. Aqueous enzyme-extracted M.concanensis seed oil content ranged from 23.54 to 27.46% and was significantly (P 0.05) higher than that of the control (15.41 %). Analyses of the oilseed residues (meals) revealed no significant (P> 0.05) variation in the contents of fiber and ash within the three extraction methods. However, the protein content of the meal obtained through the aqueous-enzyme and control methods was significantly (P>0.05) lower as compared to that of the solvent-extracted. There were no significant (P>0.05) differences in iodine value (67.1-68.0 g of iodine/100 g of oil), density at 24 degrees C (0.865-0.866 g mL(-1)), refractive index at 40 degrees C (1.4622-1.4627) and unsaponifibale (0.69-0.76%) matter of the M. concanensis seed oils extracted using the three methods. The specific extinctions at 232 and 270 nm, peroxide value, p-anisidine, free fatty acid contents and color values of the aqueous-enzyme-extracted oil were found to be lower than that of solvent-extracted oil and thus revealed good quality. The oils extracted through the three methods exhibited no significant (P>0.05) variation in their contents of major fatty acids except stearic (18:0) and linoleic (18:2) acids. The level of gamma-tocopherol in enzymeextracted oil, even though comparable to the control, was significantly (P<0.05) higher than that of solvent-extracted oil. The content of alpha-tocopherol in the enzyme-extracted oil was found to be higher than that of the control but lower than that of solvent-extracted oil.

URL:

http://scholar.google.com/scholar?q=Quality+assessment+of+Moringa+concanensis+seed+oil+extracted+through+solvent+and+aqueous-enzymatic+techniques&hl=en&btnG=Search&as_sdt=1%2C5&as_sdtp=on


193.

Authors:

Katre, Uma V.
Suresh, C. G.
Khan, M. Islam
Gaikwad, Sushama M.

Title:

Steady state and time-resolved fluorescence studies of a hemagglutinin from Moringa oleifera

Publication:

JOURNAL OF FLUORESCENCE

Abstract:

The saccharide binding and conformational characterization of a hemagglutinin, a low molecular weight protein from the seeds of Moringa oleifera was studied using steady state and time resolved fluorescence. The lectin binds sugars LacNAc (K-a = 1380 M-1) and fructose (K-a = 975 M-1), as determined by the fluorescence spectroscopy. It has a single tryptophan per monomer which is exposed on the surface and is in a strong electropositive environment as revealed by quenching with iodide. Quenching of the fluorescence by acrylamide involved both static (K-s = 0.216 M-1) and collisional (K-sv= 8.19 M-1) components. The native protein showed two different lifetimes, tau(1) (1.6 ns) and tau(2) (4.36 ns) which decrease and get converted into a single one, (2.21 ns) after quenching with 0.15 M acrylamide. The bimolecular quenching constant, k(q) was 7.55 x 10(11) M-1 s(-1). ANSbinding studies showed that the native protein has exposed hydrophobic patches which get further exposed at extreme acidic or alkaline pH. However, they get buried in the interior of the protein in presence of 1 M GdnHCl or urea.

URL:

http://www.springerlink.com/content/n400r471147n5n20/


194.

Authors:

Dieye, Amadou Moctar
Sarr, Anna
Diop, Said Norou
Ndiaye, Mamadou
Sy, Guata Yoro
Diarra, Mounibe
Gaffary, Ilham Rajraji
Sy, Awa Ndiaye
Faye, Babacar

Title:

Medicinal plants and the treatment of diabetes in Senegal: survey with patients

Publication:

FUNDAMENTAL & CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY

Abstract:

Diabetes is the most common metabolic disorder worldwide and is a major public health problem. Its frequency increases every day in all countries. However, in developing African countries, few people have access to drugs. In addition, in Africa, traditional beliefs induce people to use medicinal plants whenever they have health problems. Thus, many people in these developing countries use plants for the treatment of diabetes. Yet, few studies are focused on the knowledge and attitudes of the users on medicinal plants in Africain general and in Senegalin particular. Hence we undertook this survey on the use of medicinal plants for the treatment of diabetes in Senegalin order to make recommendations which could contribute to the increase of the value of herbal medicines in developing countries. We did a cross-sectional survey by direct interview at a university teaching hospital, in Dakarwith a representative sample of 220 patients. Forty-one plants were used by the patients and the two most frequently cited were Moringa oleifera Lam (65.90%) and Sclerocarya birrea (A. Rich) Hochst (43.20%). Patients gave several reasons for using medicinal plants (traditional treatment: 40%, efficacy: 32%, low cost: 20%). The principal suppliers of plants were tradesmen in the market (66.8%) and traditional therapists (5%). Sixty-five per cent of patients think that medicinal plants are efficient for the treatment of diabetes and 20% have reported adverse effects which could be caused by medicinal plants. In conclusion, many people in our study think that medicinal plants are efficient for the treatment of diabetes, which requires research work by scientists in developing countries in this field in order to prove their efficacy and innocuousness.

URL:

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1472-8206.2007.00563.x/abstract

 

195.

Authors:

Sharma, Parul
Goyal, Pritee
Srivastava, Shalini

Title:

Biosorption of trivalent and hexavalent chromium from aqueous systems using shelled Moringa oleifera seeds

Publication:

CHEMICAL SPECIATION ANDBIOAVAILABILITY

Abstract:

The present study explores the sorption properties of shelled Moringa oleifera seeds (SMOS) for removal of two environmentally important oxidation states of chromium (trivalent and hexavalent) from an aqueous system on the laboratory scale. Sorption studies reveal the optimum conditions for the removal of 81.02%; Cr(III) and 88.15% Cr(VI) as follows: biomass dosage (4.0g), metal concentration [25 mg/L for Cr (III); 50 mg/L for Cr (VI)], contact time (40 minutes) at pH 6.5 and 2.5 respectively. The adsorption data were found to fit well both the Freundlich and Langmuir isotherms. Characterization of the seed powder by FTIR showed the clear presence of amino acid moieties having both positively charged amino and negatively charged carboxylic groups and confirmed that biosorption involves amino acid-chromium interactions. SEMstudies of native and exhausted [Cr(III)) and Cr(VI)] treated SMOS revealed large spherical clusters having a pore area of 8.66 mu m(2) in the case of native SMOS while dense agglomerated etched dendrite type morphology have a pore area of 0.80 mu m(2) in Cr(Ill) and 0.78 mu m(2) in Cr(VI) treated SMOS The spent biosorbent was regenerated and found to be effectively reusable for four cycles.

URL:

http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/stl/csb/2007/00000019/00000004/art00003

 

196.

Authors:

Anwar, Farooq
Rashid, Umer

Title:

Physico-chemical characteristics of Moringa oleifera seeds and seed oil from a wild provenance of Pakistan

Publication:

PAKISTANJOURNAL OF BOTANY

Abstract:

The purpose of the present study was to examine the physico-chemical characteristics of Moringo oleifera seeds and seed oil from a wild provenance of Pakistan. The Moringa seeds harvested from the forests of Kohat district of NWFP exhibited an oil yield of 34.80%. Protein, fiber, moisture and ash contents were 31.65, 7.54, 8.90 and 6.53%, respectively. The extracted M. oleifera seed oil revealed an iodine value of 68.63: refractive index (40 degrees C), 1.4571; density (24 degrees C), 0.09032 g cm(-3): saponification value. 181.4: unsaponifiable matter, 0.74%; acidity (as oleic acid) 0.81% and color (1-in. cell) 1.28 R + 31.00 Y. Determinations of oxidation parameters like induction period (Rancimat 20 L/h, 120 degrees C), specific extinctions at 232 and 270 nm, peroxide- and p-anisidine values demostrated a good oxidation stability of the investigated M. oleifera oil. Tocopherols (alpha, gamma and delta) contents of the oil amounted to 140.5, 63.18 and 61.70 mg kg(-1), respectively and were reduced considerably after degumming. The major sterol components of the oil were beta-sitosterol (46.16%), campesterol (17.59%), stigmasterol (18.80%) and Delta(5) avenasterol (9.26%). The wild M. oleifera seed oil was found to contain oleic acid up to 73.22%, followed by palmitic, stearic, behenic and arachidic acids 6.45, 5.50, 6.16 and 4.08%, respectively and fell in the category of high-oleic oils, The results of different quality attributes of M. oleifera oil from a wild provenance of Pakistan reveal that it could be employed for edible and commercial applications.

URL:

http://www.pakbs.org/pjbot/PDFs/39(5)/PJB39(5)1443.pdf

 

197.

Authors:

Katre, Uma V.
Suresh, C. G.
Khan, A. Islam
Gaikwad, Sushama A.

Title:

Structure-activity relationship of a hemagglutinin from Moringa oleifera seeds

Publication:

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF BIOLOGICAL MACROMOLECULES

Abstract:

The hemagglutinin from the seeds of Moringa oleifera (MoL) agglutinates human as well as rabbit erythrocytes; the affinity for the latter is almost 250 times more than that for the former. MoL was inhibited by glycoproteins namely thyroglobulin, fetuin and holotransferin indicating the complex sugar specificity of the lectin. The protein is a homodimer with molecular mass of 14 kDa, subunits (7.1 kDa) linked by the disulfide bond(s). The secondary structure elements of MoL area-helix, 28%; beta-sheet, 23%; turn 20% and unordered 28%. While the activity and secondary structure were not affected at extreme pH and high temperature, they were drastically affected in presence of dithiothreitol at and above pH 7.0, indicating that disulfide linkages hold the active conformation of the protein.

URL:

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18063031


198.

Authors:

Patra, A. K.
Kamra, D. N.
Agarwal, Neeta

Title:

Effect of leaf extracts on in vitro fermentation of feed and methanogenesis with rumen liquor of buffalo

Publication:

INDIAN JOURNAL OF ANIMAL SCIENCES

Abstract:

The leaves of Coriandrum sativum (coriander), Quercus incana (oak), Populus deltoides (poplar), Ocimum sanctum (tulsi) and Moringa oleifera (drumstick) extracted in 3 solvents (ethanol, methanol and water) at 3 levels (0, 0.25 and 0.5 ml/30 ml of incubation medium) were tested in 6x3x3 factorial design for their effect on fermentation of feed and methanogenesis in in vitro gas production test. The extracts of C. sativum and M. oleifra enhanced gas production significantly as compared to control and other leaf extracts. Methanol extract of the leaves of R. deltoides caused a significant depression in methanogenesis, whereas, none of the other leaf extracts had any effect. The specific activities of carboxymethylcellulase, xylanase and acetyl esterase were increased by addition of leaf extracts in the medium. The concentration of total volatile fatty acids was similar among the extracts of 5 leaves, but there was significant decrease in acetate to propionate ratio on inclusion of 0.5 ml methanol extract of P. deltoides in the medium. None of the 5 leaf extracts had any effect on in vitro degradability of dry matter or organic matter. The numbers of total protozoa, large and small spirotrichs and holotrichs were not affected by any of the leaf extracts. The results indicated that the methanol extract of R. deltoides leaves inhibited rumen methanogenesis without. adversely affecting other fermentation characteristics.

URL:

http://epubs.icar.org.in/ejournal/index.php/IJAnS/article/view/3392/0

 

199.

Authors:

Mani, S.
Jaya, S.
Vadivambal, R.

Title:

Optimization of solvent extraction of moring (Moringa oleifera) seed kernel oil using response surface methodology

Publication:

FOOD ANDBIOPRODUCTS PROCESSING

Abstract:

Extraction of seed kernel oil from moringa (Moringa oleifera) was investigated with hexane, petroleum ether and acetone as the first extraction medium at various kernel particle size, extraction temperature and residence time, which were called as independent variables. Central composite rotatable design (CCRD) of experiments was used to study the effect of solvent type, particle size, extraction temperature and residence time of solvent on the oil yield, which was called as dependent variable. The maximum oil yield of 33.1% for hexane, 31.8% for petroleum ether and 31.1% for acetone was obtained. Among the three solvents, hexane yielded the maximum oil from moringa seed kernels. Among three process parameters studied, particle size had the most significant effect on the oil yield followed by extraction temperature and time for all the solvents. Response surface methodology technique was used to optimize the independent variables for maximum oil extraction, From the optimized values of particle size (0.62 mm), extraction temperature (56.5 degrees C) and residence time (7 h), maximum oil yield obtained was 33.5%, using hexane. Optimized values of independent variables for maximum yield were varied for other two solvents. This protocol provides improved opportunities for the medicinal use of moringa oil in addition to its popularity as a vegetable in south Asia.

URL:

http://md1.csa.com/partners/viewrecord.php?requester=gs&collection=TRD&recid=2008242537AN&q=&uid=790284667&setcookie=yes

 

200.

Authors:

Diouf, Meissa
Gueye, M.
Faye, B.
Dieme, O.
Lo, C.

Title:

The commodity systems of four indigenous leafy vegetables in Senegal

Publication:

WATER SA

Abstract:

Increasing the production of traditional leafy vegetables that are well adapted to the agro-ecology of Senegal, easy to grow and requiring low inputs, could greatly help to solve the poverty and malnutrition problems in Senegal. However, leafy vegetables are often overlooked by the scientific community. The species of leafy vegetables dealt with in this paper are roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.), cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp), amaranths (Amaranthus L. spp.) and Moringa (Moringa oleifera Lam). To increase production of traditional leafy vegetables, access to good quality seeds is necessary. Two plant-collecting missions were undertaken throughout Senegalby a multidisciplinary research team. Experimentation on Hibiscus regeneration and characterisation was conducted at ISRA-CDH research station. Sixty-four accessions were collected among the four species. Forty-eight accessions of roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) were characterised. The level of dissimilarity (63%) within the accessions of roselle confirmed the high degree of intra-species variability. The Richness Index determined for the Diaobe and Matam markets indicated a high degree of genetic diversity of roselle. These are used to select three new lines according to farmers’ preference criteria.
In addition, socio-economic surveys were conducted in two pilot villages. It was found that planting dates for leafy vegetables varied greatly, depending on species, locality and season. Sowing was mainly done broadcast. Organic fertilisers were commonly applied. Eighty per cent (80%) of the farmers applied an NPK formulation and small quantities of urea. Traditional irrigation methods are often used in the growing of traditional leafy vegetables. The seeds used by farmers were a mixture of varieties. Farmers identified four types of each of roselle, amaranth and cowpea, but could not differentiate any variety for Moringa. Local markets constitute the main roselle seed supply source. Few farmers have developed traditional methods of seed conservation. Selling of seed is not a common activity in rural areas. Generally, farmers exchange gratuitously theirs seeds. Leaves are commonly sold at the field, in the village, in the nearest city and weekly at local markets called ‘Louma’. Average annual income generated by leaves varies from 41 to 500 USD. Leafy vegetables are used as food and for medicinal purposes. Leafy vegetable consumption in Senegal is around 23 g/ person.d.

URL:

http://ajol.info/index.php/wsa/article/view/49113

 

201.

Authors:

Marobhe, Nancy Jotharn

Title:

Critical review of water supply services in urban and rural areas of Tanzania

Publication:

WATER POLICY

Abstract:

Despite several reforms in the water sector coupled with significant external financial assistance for water development projects, a large population in Tanzaniafaces water supply problems. This paper analyses issues and problems pertaining to urban and rural water supply services in Tanzaniaby citing examples from Dar es SalaamCityand Singida rural district. Desk study, field visits, discussions and personal observations were used for collecting information. Water supply coverage is 73% and 53% for urban and rural areas, respectively. Only 30% of the population in Dar es Salaamis served by piped water. The unserved poorer segments of the population pay higher for water services. The water distribution systems are worn out and account for 60% of water loss. Inadequate coverage of water supply is associated with prevalence of waterborne diseases. Urban water authorities are inefficient in financial management. Water tariffs are low, ranging between US$ 0.25 and US$ 0.35/m(3)/month and unregistered customers exceed 110, 000. Singida rural water sources include dams, shallow and deep wells. About 70% of installed pumps are impaired owing to poor management. Rural populations use polluted sources which are purified using local seeds. Finally the paper gives recommendations for improving water supply services.

URL:

http://cat.inist.fr/?aModele=afficheN&cpsidt=20017930

 

202.

Authors:

Singh, Ramesh P.
Singh, Akhilesh K.
Singh, Rudra P.

Title:

The effect of the availability of bee forage and environmental conditions on the nesting of Apis dorsata Fabr.

Publication:

JOURNAL OF APICULTURAL RESEARCH

Abstract:

Nesting of Apis dorsata Fabr. was influenced by the availability of forage plants and prevailing temperatures. There was an assured nectar and pollen supply during October to June through the flowering of more than twenty nectariferous plants, major ones being: Brassica campestris; Brassica rapa; Cajanus cajan; Moringa oleifera; Bombax ceiba; Helianthus annuus; Syzygium cumini; Emblica officinalis and Pongamia pinnata. The total numbers of nesting colonies were 28 in November and four in June coinciding with abundant food and optimum temperature in the first half and a decline later on. The greatest number of nests (35) was observed in January, at semi protected (32) and unprotected (3) sites, when minimum and maximum average temperatures were 7.8 and 24.2 degrees C, respectively. The numbers of bee colonies at such sites in June, when the minimum and maximum temperatures were 26.8 and 33.7 degrees C declined to four and none, respectively. May and June maximum temperature ranged between 40 to 45 degrees C during daylight hours, and average temperature was about 11.4 degrees C higher than November. However, in 2000, the highest number of colonies (33 and 35), was observed in January when temperature was the lowest (5.8-7.8 degrees C).

URL:

http://www.entomology.bio.pu.ru/personal/kipyatkov/pdf/publ/life_cycles-2006.pdf#page=135

 

203.

Authors:

Kwaambwa, H. M.
Maikokera, R.

Title:

A fluorescence spectroscopic study of a coagulating protein extracted from Moringa oleifera seeds

Publication:

COLLOIDS ANDSURFACES B-BIOINTERFACES

Abstract:

The fluorescence studies of coagulating protein extracted from Moringa oleifera seeds have been studied using steady-state intrinsic fluorescence. The fluorescence spectra are dominated by tryptophan emission and the emission peak maximum (lambda(max) = 343 +/- 2 nm) indicated that the tryptophan residue is not located in the hydrophobic core of the protein. Changes in solution pH affected the protein conformation as indicated by changes in the tryptophan fluorescence above pH 9 whereas the ionic strength had minimal effect. The exposure and environments of the tryptophan residue were determined using collisional quenchers. (C) 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

URL:

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17646090

 

204.

Authors:

Cova, Luis Jose
Garcia, Danny Eugenio
Castro, Alexander Rafael
Medina, Maria Gabriela

Title:

Detrimental effect of Moringa oleifera (Lam.) combined with other agricultural wastes as substrates for the red worm (Eisenia spp.)

Publication:

INTERCIENCIA

Abstract:

An experiment was carried out to study the behavior of the red worm (Eisenia spp.) fed with 5 nutritious substrates based in Moringa oleifera (Lam.) foliage, for the nutritional potentialities, and other agricultural wastes in Trujillo state, Venezuela. A randomized design with repeated measurements and three replicates was used. Initially, 1.16kg of biomass. in 0.5m(3) of substrate were inoculated and biomass, mature worms, young worms, baby worms and capsules were determined. The components of each substrate exhibited an appropriate chemical composition for the breeding of this annelid. However M. oleifera showed substantial quantities of terpens, lectins, saponins and tannins. A significant effect substrates x time of measure in all stages was observed (P < 0,05). When the substrates contained M. oleifera foliage, the presence of worms and capsules was not observed from the second month of evaluation onwards. With bovine manure substrate the best results (20g of biomass, 133 total worms and 29 capsules in 1900ml) were obtained after four months. The negative effect of M. oleifera foliage in the feeding of the red worm could be due to the presence of secondary metabolites with anti-nutritional and/our toxic properties.

URL:

http://direct.bl.uk/bld/PlaceOrder.do?UIN=221069284&ETOC=RN&from=searchengine

 

205.

Authors:

Makkar, H. P. S.
Francis, G.
Becker, K.

Title:

Bioactivity of phytochernicals in some lesser-known plants and their effects and potential applications in livestock and aquaculture production systems

Publication:

ANIMAL

Abstract:

Livestock and aquaculture production is under political and social pressure, especially in the European Union (EU), to decrease pollution and environmental damage arising due to animal agriculture. The EU has banned the use of antibiotics and other chemicals, which have been shown to be effective in promoting growth and reducing environment pollutants because of the risk caused to humans by chemical residues in food and by antibiotic resistance being passed on to human pathogens. As a result of this, scientists have intensified efforts in exploiting plants, plant extracts or natural plant compounds as potential natural alternatives for enhancing the livestock productivity. This paper discusses work on the effects of various phytochemicals and plant secondary metabolites in ruminant and fish species. The focus is on (i) plants such as Ananas comosus (pine apple), Momordica charantia (bitter gourd) and Azadirachta indica (neem) containing anthelmintic compounds and for their use for controlling internal parasites; (ii) plants containing polyphenols and their applications for protecting proteins from degradation in the rumen, increasing efficiency of microbial protein synthesis in rumen and decreasing methane emission; for using as antioxidants, antibacterial and antihelmintic agents; and for changing meat colour and for increasing n-3 fatty acids and conjugated linoleic acid in meat; (iii) saponin-rich plants such as quillaja, yucca and Sapindus saponaria for increasing the efficiency of rumen fermentation, decreasing methane emission and enhancing growth, for producing desired nutritional attributes such as lowering of cholesterol in monogastric animals; for increasing growth of fish (common carp and Nile tilapia) and for changing male to female ratio in tilapia; and for use as molluscicidal agents; (iv) Moringa oleifera leaves as a source of plant growth factor(s), antioxidants, beta-carotene, vitamin C, and various glucosinolates and their degraded products for possible use as antibacterial, antioxidant, anticarcinogenic and antipest agents, (v) Jatropha curcas toxic variety with high levels of various phytochemicals such as trypsin inhibitor lectin, phytate and phorbol esters in seeds limiting the use of seed meal in fish and livestock diets; and the use of phorbol esters as bio-pesticidal agent, and (vi) lesser-known legumes such as Entada phaseoloides seeds containing high levels of trypsin inhibitor and saponins, Sesbania aculeate seeds rich in non-starch polysaccharides and Mucuna pruriens var. utilis seeds rich in L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine and their potential as fish feed; Cassia fistula seeds as a source of antioxidants; and the use of Canavalia ensiformis, C. gladiata and C. virosa seeds containing high levels of ttypsin inhinitor, lectins and canavanine. The paper also presents some challenges and future areas of work in this field.

URL:

http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayAbstract?fromPage=online&aid=1358260

 

206.

Authors:

Ashraf, F.
Gilani, S. R.

Title:

Fatty acids in Moringa oleifeta oil

Publication:

JOURNAL OF THE CHEMICAL SOCIETY OF PAKISTAN

Abstract:

The research work was conducted to investigate the total fatly acid contents in Moringa (Moringa oleifera) seed kernels oil by GLC. The oil was found to contain high level of unsaturated fatty acids. The dominant saturated fatty acids were Palmitic acid (12.51 %) and Lauric acid (1.97 %). The percentages of other fatty acids in Moringa oleifera seed kernel oil were Stearic acid (2.09 %), Linoleic acid (1.27 %) and Linolenic acid (1.75 %). Oleic acid (74.99 %) was the most abundant of the unsaturated fatty acids found in Moringa oleifera seed kernels oil. The above chemical composition of the oil recommends its use in pharmaceutical preparation preferably in skin treatment/ creams.

URL:

No url

 

207.

Authors:

Flora, S. J. S.
Gupta, Richa

Title:

Beneficial effects of Centella asiatica aqueous extract against arsenic-induced oxidative stress and essential metal status in rats

Publication:

PHYTOTHERAPY RESEARCH

Abstract:

The efficacy of an aqueous extract of Centella asiatica (100, 200 and 500 mg/kg for 5 consecutive days) was studied in the depletion of arsenic and in the recovery of a few altered biochemical variables in arsenic preexposed rats (20 ppm in drinking water for 5 weeks). Exposure to arsenic significantly depleted delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) activity, reduced glutathione (GSH) level, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and increased thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) activity in red blood cells. Significant depletion of ALAD activity, GSHlevel, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), SOD and catalase (CAT) activities and an increase in TBARS levels in liver tissues was also noted. There was a significant depletion of SOD, CATand GPx activities in kidneys and an increased TBARS levels in kidney and brain accompanied by increased arsenic concentration in blood and soft tissues. Treatment with aqueous extract of Centella asiatica provided significant protection against ALAD, GSHand TBARS levels, particularly at doses of 200 and 500 mg. Centella asiatica also provided significant recovery in the inhibited liver ALAD and G6PD activities. Arsenic concentration in blood and soft tissues remained uninfluenced after Centella asiatica administration. The present study thus suggests a beneficial effect of Centella asiatica against arsenic-induced oxidative stress but possesses no chelating property.

URL:

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17600859

 

208.

Authors:

Devi, Riteshma
Arcot, Jayashree
Sotheeswaran, Subramanium
Ali, Sadaquat

Title:

Folate contents of some selected Fijian foods using tri-enzyme extraction method

Publication:

FOOD CHEMISTRY

Abstract:

Folic acid and total folate contents of 18 common foods in the Fijian diet were assayed. Foods were purchased from the central and eastern parts of Viti Levuin Fiji. Tri-enzyme treatment was performed to release bound folates using protease and alpha-amylase, with chicken pancreas as the conjugase. The highest total folate content was recorded for egg yolk (Gallus domesticus) at 256 mu g/100 g, followed by long beans (Vigna sesquipedalis) which contained 130 mu g/100 g of total folate (fresh weight basis). The local leafy vegetable called Bele (Abelmoschus manihot) and the Drumstick leaves (Moringa oleifera) available in Fijialso had high total folate contents, above 100 mu g/100 g (fresh weight basis). For the 18 foods studied, the content of folic acid ranged from 3 to 189 mu g/100 g and the total folate content was in the range of 3-256 mu g/100 g, indicating a very wide range of folate content in the foods studied.

URL:

http://cat.inist.fr/?aModele=afficheN&cpsidt=19100781

 

209.

Authors:

Roy, Sadhan K.
Chandra, Krishnendu
Ghosh, Kaushik
Mondal, Subhas
Maiti, Debabrata
Ojha, Arnab K.
Das, Debsankar
Mondal, Soumitra
Chakraborty, Indranil
Islam, Syed S.

Title:

Structural investigation of a heteropolysaccharide isolated from the pods (fruits) of Moringa oleifera (Sajina)

Publication:

CARBOHYDRATE RESEARCH

Abstract:

A water-soluble polysaccharide was isolated from the aqueous extract of pods of Moringa oleifera. The polysaccharide contains D-galactose, 6-O-Me-D-galactose, D-galacturonic acid, L-arabinose, and L-rhammose in a molar ratio of 1:1:1:1:1. On the basis of total hydrolysis, methylation analysis, periodate oxidation, and NMR(H-1, C-13, TOCSY, DQF-COSY, NOESY, ROESY, HSQC, and HMBC) studies, the repeating unit of the polysaccharide is established as[GRAPHICS].

URL:

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17709101

 

210. Authors:

Doughari, J. H.
Pukuma, M. S.
De, N.

Title:

Antibacterial effects of Balanites aegyptiaca L. Drel. and Moringa oleifera Lam. on Salmonella typhi

Publication:

AFRICAN JOURNAL OF BIOTECHNOLOGY

Abstract:

The aqueous and organic leaves extracts of Balanites aegyptiaca and Moringa oleifera traditionally used for the treatment of infectious disease were tested for their activity against Salmonella typhi isolated from blood clot culture using the disc diffusion method. Extracts of B. aegyptiaca demonstrated higher activity (16 mm zone of inhibition) than those of Moringa oleifera (8 mm zone of inhibition) at 100 mg/ml. Of the three solvents used, ethanolic extracts of both plants demonstrated the highest activity, while the aqueous extracts showed the least activity at 100 mg/ml. The activities of these plant extracts were comparable to those of antibiotics, ciprofloxacin, cotrimoxazole and chloramphenicol, commonly used for treating typhoid fever. The antibacterial activity appears to increase when extracts of the two plants were used in combination at 100 mg/ml each (18 mm zone of inhibition). Preliminary phytochemical screening showed that both plant extracts contains saponins, tannins and phenols while only M. oleifera possesses alkaloids and B. aegyptiaca possesses anthraquinones. The antibacterial activities of the extracts on S. typhi was reasonably stable when treated at 4, 30, 60 and 100 degrees C for 1 h, however it reduces significantly when the pH was altered towards alkalinity.

URL:

http://indianmedicine.eldoc.ub.rug.nl/root/D2/92d/

 

211.

Authors:

Boucher, J.
Steiner, L.
Marison, I. W.

Title:

Bio-sorption of atrazine in the press-cake from oilseeds

Publication:

WATER RESEARCH

Abstract:

Oilseed press-cake (PC) is proposed as a novel material for the removal of hydrophobic organic pollutants (HOPs) from water. Sorption of the pesticides carbaryl, atrazine and parathion, with logK(ow) being, respectively, 1.59, 2.55 and 3.83, was demonstrated using cold-pressed rapeseed (Brassica napus), moringa (Moringa oleifera) and soybean (Glycine max) PCs. Linear sorption isotherms have been observed. The partition coefficient of carbaryl, atrazine and parathion using rapeseed PC were determined to be 0.028 +/- 0.003, 0.144 +/- 0.003 and 2.52 +/- 0.24L/g, respectively Partition studies of atrazine in PC-extracted oil and defatted PC showed that the sorption mechanism is mainly through absorption in the residual oil in the PC, whereas adsorption on the PC matrix is quantitatively much less significant.
It was also shown that the oil content of the PC is not the only parameter determining the partitioning of pesticides. Indeed, sorption using ground seeds was very weak, as demonstrated by the low partition and mass transfer coefficients. This may be due to cell structures blocking the pesticide diffusion to the oil-containing structures within the seeds, while for PC oil they are present in the form of small (10 mu m) droplets trapped within the hydrophilic PC matrix, thus presenting less resistance for mass transfer.

URL:

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17575996

 

212.

Authors:

Debnath, Siddhartha
Guha, Debjani

Title:

Role of Moringa oleifera on enterochromaffin cell count and serotonin content of experimental ulcer model

Publication:

INDIAN JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL BIOLOGY

Abstract:

The present study has been undertaken to observe the effect of aqueous extract of M. oleifera (MO) leaf (300mg/kg body weight) on mean ulcer index, enterochromaffin (EC) cells and serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) content of ulcerated gastric tissue. Ulceration was induced by using aspirin (500 mg/kg, po), cerebellar nodular lesion and applying cold stress. In all cases increased mean ulcer index in gastric tissue along with decreased EC cell count was observed with concomitant decrease of 5-HT content. Pretreatment with MO for 14 days decreased mean ulcer index, increased both EC cell count and 5-HT content in all ulcerated group, but treatment with ondansetron, a 5-HT3 receptor antagonist, along with MO pretreatment increased mean ulcer index, decreased 5-HT content without any alteration in EC cell count. The results suggest that the protective effect of MO on ulceration is mediated by increased EC cell count and 5-HT levels which may act via 5-HT3 receptors on gastric tissue.

URL:

http://nopr.niscair.res.in/handle/123456789/5315

 

213.

Authors:

Uma, N. L. G.
Fakurazi, S.
Hairuszah, I.
Mohanambal, M.
Taufik, M. H. B.
Zulkhairi, A.
Sukardi, S.
Ganabadi, S.
Bahaman, A. S.

Title:

Hepatoprotective action of Moringa oleifera Lam

Publication:

PLANTA MEDICA

Abstract:

Abstract not available

URL:

http://www.liebertonline.com/doi/abs/10.1089/10966200260398206

 

214.

Authors:

Saketh, Ram T.
Shridhar, A.
Rajasekaran, R.
Sampath, Kumar K.

Title:

Moringa oleifera Lam root bark decoction (MORBD) in urolithiasis management – A pilot study

Publication:

PLANTA MEDICA

Abstract:

Abstract not available

URL:

URL not available

 

215.

Authors:

Abdulkarim, S. M.
Long, K.
Lai, O. M.
Muhammad, S. K. S.
Ghazali, H. M.

Title:

Frying quality and stability of high-oleic Moringa oleifera seed oil in comparison with other vegetable oils

Publication:

FOOD CHEMISTRY

Abstract:

The performance of the high-oleic Moringa oleifera seed oil (MoO) in deep-frying was evaluated by comparing its frying stability with other conventional frying oils [canola (CLO), soybean (SBO), and palm olein (1`0)]. The oils were used as a frying media to fry potato chips for 6 h a day up to a maximum of 5 days. Standard methods for the determination of used frying oil deterioration such as changes in color, viscosity, free fatty acids (FFA), peroxide value (PV), p-anisidine value (p-AV), iodine value (IV), specific extinction (E broken vertical bar(%)(cm)233 and 269 nm) and total polar compounds (TPQ were used to evaluate the oils. At the end of the frying period, the change in percent FFA from the initial to final day of frying were as follows SBO (60.0%), PSO(65.0%), MoCi (66.6%) and CLO (71.4%) and the change in p-AV and TOTOX value of MoO were found to be significantly lower (P < 0.05) than the rest of the oils tested, followed by PO, with the highest values obtained in CLO and SBO. The levels of conjugated dienes and trienes (El,broken vertical bar(%)(cm) 233 and 269 nm) throughout the frying period were lowest in MoO and POfollowed CLO, with highest levels found in SBO. The rate of darkening and increase in viscosity were proportional to the frying time for all the oils. POdarkened earlier followed by CLO. At the end of frying period, TPCwas significantly (P < 0.05) lower in Moo (20.78%) and PSO(21.23%), as compared to CLO (28.73%) and SBO (31.82%).

URL:

http://psasir.upm.edu.my/7093/

 

216.

Authors:

Tewari, Amit
Bhakuni, Rajendra S.

Title:

Thiocarbamates from Moringa oleifera

Publication:

NATURAL PRODUCT COMMUNICATIONS

Abstract:

Two new thiocarbamates (I and 2) along with two known compounds have been isolated from the ethyl acetate extract of Moringa oleifera seeds. The new compounds were characterized as O-n-butyl-4-[(alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyloxy)benzyl] thiocarbamate (E) (1) and O-ethyl-4-[(alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyloxy)-3-hydroxybenzyl]thiocarbamate (E) (2) on the basis of 1D and 2D NMRspectroscopic data and MS analysis.

URL:

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7766390

 

217.

Authors:

Shanker, Karuna
Gupta, Madan M.
Srivastava, Santosh K.
Bawankule, Dnyaneshwar U.
Pal, Anirban
Khanuja, Surnan P. S.

Title:

Determination of bioactive nitrile glycoside(s) in drumstick (Moringa oleifera) by reverse phase HPLC

Publication:

FOOD CHEMISTRY

Abstract:

A high-performance liquid chromatographic method for the determination of novel bioactive nitrile glycosides niaziridin and niazirin in the leaves, pods and bark of Moringa oleifera is reported. Niaziridin is a bioenhancer for drugs and nutrients. The analytical conditions for reversed-phase HPLC with UV detection were as follows: column, Chromolith RP-18 e, 4.6 x 100 mm 0.5 mu m (Merck); column temperature, 25 degrees C mobile phase, a 20:80 (% v/v) mixture of acetonitrile: Phosphate buffer – pH 3.8; flow rate, 0.7 ml/min; detection at 220nm. Method precision (relative standard deviation) was 1.81% for niaziridin and 1.94% for niazirin. Niaziridin (0.015% and 0.039%) and niazirin (0.038% and 0.033%) are present in leaves and pods, respectively. Niaziridin and mazirin were not detected in the bark of M oleifera. Relatively higher amount of niazirin was present in leaves in comparisons to the pods while niaziridin content was about three times higher in the pods than the leaves of the M. oleifera. The method is robust to evaluate niaziridin and niazirin in samples from M. oleifera as well as for quality assurance of pharmacologically active standardized extract.

URL:

http://cat.inist.fr/?aModele=afficheN&cpsidt=18956344

 

218.

Authors:

Ndong, Moussa
Uehara, Mariko
Katsumata, Shinichi
Sato, Shigeru
Suzuki, Kazuharu

Title:

Preventive effects of Moringa oleifera (Lam) on hyperlipidemia and hepatocyte ultrastructural changes in iron deficient rats

Publication:

BIOSCIENCE BIOTECHNOLOGY ANDBIOCHEMISTRY

Abstract:

The effects of Moringa oleifera (MO), Moringaceae on hyperlipidemia and hepatocyte ultrastructural changes caused by iron deficiency were investigated. Four-weekold male Wistar-strain rats were fed a control diet based on AIN-93G (C), an iron deficient diet (Fel)), a FeD + 0.5 % MO (FeD-m) diet, or a FeD + MO I% (FeD-M) diet for 4 weeks. It was found that MO reduced irondeficient diet-induced increases in serum and hepatic lipids with dose-dependent increases of serum quercetin and kaempherol, but did not prevent anemia. By electron microscopy, in iron deficient hepatocytes, slightly swollen mitochondria and few glycogen granules were observed, but glycogen granules increased and mitochondria were normalized by treatment with MO. Furthermore, lipoproteins were observed in the Golgi complex under treatment with MO. These results suggest a possible beneficial effect of MO in the prevention of hyperlipidemia and ultrastructural changes in hepatocytes due to iron-deficiency.

URL:

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17690476

 

219.

Authors:

Kwaambwa, Habauka M.

Maikokera, Raymond

Title:

Air-water interface interaction of anionic, cationic, and nonionic surfactants with a coagulant protein extracted from Moringa oleifera seeds studied using surface tension probe

Publication:

WATER SA

Abstract:

The interaction of coagulating protein extracted from Moringa oleifera seeds with the anionic surfactant sodium his (2-ethyl- 1-hexylsulfosuccinate (AOT), the cationic surfactant hexadecylpyridinium chloride (HDPC) and non-ionic surfactant Triton X-100 (TX-100) were investigated by surface tension measurement. The protein extract interacts strongly with anionic surfactant AOTsuggesting that the former is cationic under conditions studied. HDPC exhibits mild interaction with protein extract whereas the interaction with Triton X-100, if any, could not be detected by this technique.

URL:

http://cat.inist.fr/?aModele=afficheN&cpsidt=18977729

 

220.

Authors:

Pullakhandam, Raghu
Failla, Mark L.

Title:

Micellarization and intestinal cell uptake of delta-carotene and lutein from drumstick (Moringa oleifera) leaves

Publication:

JOURNAL OF MEDICINAL FOOD

Abstract:

The leaves and pods of the drumstick tree are used as food and medicine in some Asian and African countries. Although relatively high concentrations of beta-carotene and lutein have been reported in the leaves, the bioavailability of these carotenoids from this source is unknown. We have analyzed the digestive stability and bioaccessibility of carotenoids in fresh and lyophilized drumstick leaves using the coupled in vitro digestion/Caco-2 cell model. beta-Carotene and lutein were stable during simulated gastric and small intestinal digestion. The efficiency of micellarization of lutein during the small intestinal phase of digestion exceeded that of beta-carotene. Addition of peanut oil (5% vol/wt) to the test food increased micellarization of both carotenoids, and particularly beta-carotene. Caco-2 cells accumulated beta-carotene and lutein from micelles generated during digestion of drumstick leaves in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. The relatively high bioaccessibility of beta-carotene and lutein from drumstick leaves ingested with oil supports the potential use of this plant food for improving vitamin A nutrition and perhaps delaying the onset of some degenerative diseases such as cataracts.

URL:

No url

 

221.

Authors:

Arabshahi-Delouee, Saeedeh
Urooj, Asna

Title:

Application of phenolic extracts from selected plants in fruit juice

Publication:

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF FOOD PROPERTIES

Abstract:

Plant phenolics have gained considerable interest in recent years for their potential effects against food related microorganisms. In the present study, phenolic extracts from the leaves of three plants namely Moringa oleifera, Morus indica, and Mentha spicata were prepared by a mixture of methanol/acetone/water. The UV spectra of extracts were recorded and contents of total phenolics determined. The extracts were incorporated in pineapple juice and their solubility and stability were studied. In addition, the acceptability of treated juice samples was sensory evaluated. The solubility of M. indica and M. oleifera extracts was found to be more than that of M. spicata. The two extracts were also stable in the pH environment of pineapple juice when stored at 4 degrees C for two weeks. The pineapple juice treated with M. indica extract was more acceptable compared to that of M. oleifera, according to sensory evaluation. Therefore, the effect of addition of phenolic extract from M. indica on the shelf life of pineapple juice stored at 4 degrees C was investigated by monitoring the changes in titrable acidity and sensory parameters for 8 weeks. Results indicated that the extracts of natural phenolic compounds can be used to improve the quality and safety of foods.

URL:

http://direct.bl.uk/bld/PlaceOrder.do?UIN=213290810&ETOC=RN&from=searchengine

 

222.

Authors:

Bhatia, Subhash
Othman, Zalina
Ahmad, Abdul Latif

Title:

Coagulation-flocculation process for POME treatment using Moringa oleifera seeds extract: Optimization studies

Publication:

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING JOURNAL

Abstract:

The treatment of palm oil mill effluent, POME is an important issue for the minimization of water pollution. The coagulation-flocculation process using Moringa oleifera seeds after oil extraction as natural coagulant is reported for POME treatment in the present study. The important process parameters pH, settling time, M. oleifera (after oil extraction) dosage and flocculant (NALCO 775 1) dosage were optimized using design of experiments (DOE). A full factorial composite experimental design and response surface methodology (RSM) were used to obtain the optimum values of the parameters. The suspended solids of the raw POME were reduced from 17.927 mg/L to 181 mg/L and % recovery of the sludge as 87% was obtained at an optimum pH 5, settling time 114 min, M. oleifera dosage of 3469 mg/L and 6736 mgL of flocculant (NALCO 7751) dosage in the present study.

URL:

http://cat.inist.fr/?aModele=afficheN&cpsidt=18875492

 

223.

Authors:

Ndong, Moussa
Uehara, Mariko
Katsumata, Shin-ichi
Suzuki, Kazuharu

Title:

Effects of oral administration of Moringa oleifera Lam on glucose tolerance in Goto-Kakizaki and Wistar rats

Publication:

JOURNAL OF CLINICAL BIOCHEMISTRY ANDNUTRITION

Abstract:

Medicinal plants constitute an important source of potential therapeutic agents for diabetes. In the present study, we investigated the effects of Moringa oleifera (MO) Lam, Moringacea, on glucose tolerance in Wistar rats and Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats, modeled type 2 diabetes. Major polyphenols in MO powder were quercetin glucosides, rutin, kaempferol glycosides and chlorogenic acids by HPLC analysis. As the results of glucose tolerance test, MO significantly decreased the blood glucose at 20, 30, 45 and 60 min for GK rats and at 10, 30 and 45 min for Wistar rats (p<0.05) compared to the both controls after glucose administration. The area under the curve of changes in the blood glucose was significantly higher in the GK control group than in the GK plus MO group (p<0.05) in the periods 30-60 min and 60-120 min. Furthermore, MO significantly decreased stomach emptying in GK rats (P<0.05). The results indicated that MO has an ameliorating effect for glucose intolerance, and the effect might be mediated by quercetin-3-glucoside and fiber contents in MO leaf powder. The action of MO was greater in GK rats than in Wistar rats.

URL:

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2275769/

 

224.

Authors:

Marobhe, N. J.
Dalhal, G.
Gunaratna, K. R.

Title:

Simple and rapid methods for purification and characterization of active coagulants from the seeds of Vigna unguiculata and Parkinsonia aculeata

Publication:

ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY

Abstract:

The coagulating properties of aqueous crude extracts and purified proteins of Vigna unguicilata and Parkinsomia aculeata seeds, which are traditional water coagulants in rural areas of Tanzania, were studied. The coagulation activity assays were done using one millilitre (ml) of kaolin water samples. Coagulating proteins were purified in two-step ion exchange chromatography. The properties of coagulant protein were compared with Moringa oleifera. Coagulating components eluted by 0.6 M NaCl in both coagulants are cationic proteins that have the molecular mass of about 6 kDa, which is very similar to that of M. oleifera. The proteins of V. unguiculata and P. aculeata eluted by 0.3 M NaCl also harbour coagulation activity but proteins eluted with 0.6 M NaCl have higher activity. The dosage for coagulation using purified proteins of both coagulants is about 5 to 10 times lower than that of crude seed extracts. The optimum floc settling time of water treated by crude seed extracts and purified proteins ranged between two and two and half hours. Coagulating proteins of both coagulants elated by 0.6 M NaCl are thermoresistant and retained coagulation activity of 87% to 92% after boiling for two hours at 80 degrees C and one hour at 95 degrees C. Thermotolerant proteins of V. unguiculata eluted by 0.6 M NaCl and P. aculeata have wider pH range of 5.5 to 8.5 for coagulation activity than those of M. oleifera proteins. The present investigation reveals the possibility of using purified natural coagulants for water treatment to produce safe drinking water.

URL:

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17624107

 

225.

Authors:

Sajidu, S. M., I
Henry, E. M. T.
Persson, I
Masamba, W. R. L.
Kayambazinthu, D.

Title:

pH dependence of sorption of Cd2+, Zn2+, Cu2+ and Cr3+ on crude water and sodium chloride extracts of Moringa stenopetala and Moringa oleifera

Publication:

AFRICAN JOURNAL OF BIOTECHNOLOGY

Abstract:

The ability of crude water and sodium chloride extracts of partially defatted powder of Moringa stenopetala (MS) and Moringa oleifera (MO) to remove heavy metals (Cd2+, Zn2+, Cu2+ and Cr3+) from single ion solution was investigated. At initial metal concentration of about 4 ppm, the extracts showed complete sorption for Cd2+, Zn2+ and Cr3+ ions at pH above 7.8, 4.0 and 4.0, respectively, at a dose of 1.0 ml of sorbent in 9.50 ml of metal solution. Cu2+ sorption increases slightly with pH to about 60% for MS at pH 6 and then becomes constant up to pH 8 when sorption rises to completion. Preliminary characterization of the actual powder by proton nuclear magnetic resonance showed clear presence of amide (-CO-N-H), benzenoid (Ar-H), saturated alkyl and unsaturated fragments in both MS and MO. The mass spectrum showed the presence of amino (R-NH2) fragments. The remarkable heavy metal sorption ability of M. stenopetala and M. oleifera could thus be attributable to, among other mechanisms, coordination or complex formation between the metal cations and pH dependent oxygen and nitrogen anionic sites of the Moringa proteins.

URL:

No url

 

226.

Authors:

Pretreatment of palm oil mill effluent (POME) using Moringa oleifera seeds as natural coagulant

Title:

JOURNAL OF HAZARDOUS MATERIALS

Publication:

Moringa oleifera seeds, an environmental friendly and natural coagulant are reported for the pretreatment of palm oil mill effluent (POME). In coagulation-flocculation process, the M. oleifera seeds after oil extraction (MOAE) are an effective coagulant with the removal of 95% suspended solids and 52.2% reduction in the chemical oxygen demand (COD). The combination of MOAE with flocculant (NALCO 7751), the suspended solids removal increased to 99.3% and COD reduction was 52.5%. The coagulation-flocculation process at the temperature of 30 degrees C resulted in better suspended solids removal and COD reduction compared to the temperature of 40, 55 and 70 degrees C. The MOAE combined with flocculant (NALCO 7751) reduced the sludge volume index (SVI) to 210 mL/g with higher recovery of dry mass of sludge (87.25%) and water (50.3%).

Abstract:

Moringa oleifera seeds, an environmental friendly and natural coagulant are reported for the pretreatment of palm oil mill effluent (POME). In coagulation-flocculation process, the M. oleifera seeds after oil extraction (MOAE) are an effective coagulant with the removal of 95% suspended solids and 52.2% reduction in the chemical oxygen demand (COD). The combination of MOAE with flocculant (NALCO 7751), the suspended solids removal increased to 99.3% and COD reduction was 52.5%. The coagulation-flocculation process at the temperature of 30 degrees C resulted in better suspended solids removal and COD reduction compared to the temperature of 40, 55 and 70 degrees C. The MOAE combined with flocculant (NALCO 7751) reduced the sludge volume index (SVI) to 210 mL/g with higher recovery of dry mass of sludge (87.25%) and water (50.3%).

URL:

http://cat.inist.fr/?aModele=afficheN&cpsidt=18847723

 

227.

Authors:

Devaraj, V. C.
Asad, Mohammed
Prasad, Satya

Title:

PHARMACEUTICAL BIOLOGY

Publication:

PHARMACEUTICAL BIOLOGY

Abstract:

The effect of different extracts of leaves and fruits of Moringa oleifera Lam. (Moringaceae) on gastric and duodenal ulcers was evaluated by using different gastric ulcer models and cysteamine-induced duodenal ulcer method. The leaf extracts (500 mg/kg, p.o.) of Moringa oleifera showed gastric ulcer healing effect in acetic acid-induced chronic gastric ulcers. The acetone extract and methanol extract of the leaves produced gastric antisecretory effect in pylorus-ligated rats and showed gastric cytoprotective effect in ethanol-induced and indomethacin-induced gastric ulcers. The leaf extracts also produced a significant reduction of stress-induced gastric ulcers and cysteamine-induced duodenal ulcers. None of the extracts of the fruits showed any significant antiulcer effect. It was concluded that leaves of Moringa oleifera increase healing of gastric ulcers and also prevent the development of experimentally induced gastric ulcers and duodenal ulcers in rats.

URL:

http://informahealthcare.com/doi/abs/10.1080/13880200701212924

 

228.

Authors:

Manzoor, Maleeha
Anwar, Farooq
Iqbal, Tahira
Bhanger, M. I.

Title:

Physico-chemical characterization of Moringa concanensis seeds and seed oil

Publication:

JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN OIL CHEMISTS SOCIETY

Abstract:

The present work reports the characterization and comparison of Moringa concanensis seed oil from Tharparkar (a drought hit area), Pakistan. The hexane-extracted oil content of M. concanensis seeds ranged from 37.56 to 40.06% (average 38.82%). Protein, fiber, moisture and ash contents were found to be 30.07, 6.00, 5.88 and 9.00%, respectively. The extracted oil exhibited an iodine value of 67.00; a refractive index (40 degrees C) of 1.4648; its density (24 degrees C) was 0.8660 mg mL(-1); the saponification value (mg of KOH g(-1) of oil) was 179.00; unsaponifiable matter 0.78%; color (1 in. cell) 1.90R + 19.00Y; and acidity (% as oleic acid) 0.34%. Tocopherols (alpha, gamma, and delta) in the oil accounted for 72.11, 9.26 and 33.87 mg kg(-1), respectively. Specific extinctions at 232 and 270 nm were 3.17 and 0.65, respectively. The peroxide and p-anisidine values of the oil were found to be 1.75 and 1.84 meq kg(-1), respectively. The induction periods (Rancimat, 20 L h(-1), 120 degrees C) of the crude oil was 10.81 h and reduced to 8.90 h after degumming. The M. concanensis oil was found to contain high levels of oleic acid (up to 68.00%) followed by palmitic, stearic, behenic, and arachidic acids up to levels of 11.04, 3.58, 3.44 and 7.09%, respectively. The results of the present analytical study, compared with those for other Moringa species and different vegetable oils, showed M. concanensis to be a potentially valuable non-conventional seed crop for high quality oil.

URL:

No url

229.

Authors:

Anwar, Farooq
Hussain, Abdullah Ijaz
Iqbal, Shahid
Bhanger, Muhammad Iqbal

Title:

Enhancement of the oxidative stability of some vegetable oils by blending with Moringa oleifera oil

Publication:

FOOD CHEMISTRY

Abstract:

Blends (20%, 40%, 60%, 80% w/w) of Moringa oleifera oil (MOO) with sunflower oil (SFO) and soybean oil (SBO) were prepared to evaluate the changes in fatty acid (FA) composition, oxidative and thermal stability of SFO and SBO. The blending of MOO with SFO and SBO in proportions of 0-80% resulted in the reduction of linoleic acid (C-18:2) content of SFO and SBO from 67.0% to 17.2% and 56.2% to 14.6% and increase in the contents of oleic acid (C-18:1) from 26.2% to 68.3% and 21.4% to 65.9%, factors of 0.72, 0.72 and 1.27, 1.33, respectively. A storage ability test (180 days; ambient conditions) showed an appreciable improvement in the oxidative stability of substrate oils with increase of MOO concentration, as depicted by the least oxidative alterations in PV, IV and highest increase in induction period, IP, of the MOO:SBO (80: 20 w/w) blend. Each 20% addition of MOO resulted in decreases of PV and IV by factors of 0.84, 0.85 and 0.89, 0.88, respectively, and increases in IP by factors of 1.45 and 1.37 of SFO and SBO, respectively.
The heating performance test (180 degrees C for 42 h; 6 h heating cycle per day), as followed by the measurement of polymer contents and total polar contents (TPC), also revealed the MOO:SBO (80:20 w/w) blend to be the most stable. Every 20% addition of MOO in SFO and SBO resulted in reduction of the polymer contents And TPC of SFO and SBO by factors of 0.91, 0.92 and 0.94, 0.94, respectively. On the basis of the present findings, it appears that proper blending of high linoleic oils with MOO can result in oil blends which could meet nutritional needs with improved stability for domestic cooking and deep-frying.

URL:

http://cat.inist.fr/?aModele=afficheN&cpsidt=18670874

 

230.

Authors:

Bhatti, Haq Nawaz
Mumtaz, Beenish
Hanif, Muhammad Asif
Nadeem, Raziya

Title:

Removal of Zn(II) ions from aqueous solution using Moringa oleifera Lam. (horseradish tree) biomass

Publication:

PROCESS BIOCHEMISTRY

Abstract:

The removal of Zn(II) ions from aqueous solution using pure and chemically pretreated biomass of Moringa oleifera was investigated at 30 +/- 1 degrees C in this study. The experimental results explored that the maximum pH (pH(max)) for efficient sorption of Zn(II) was 7 +/- 0.1 at which evaluated biosorbent dosage and biosorbent article size, were 0.5 g/L, < 0.255 mm, respectively. The cellular Zn(II) concentration increased with the concentrations of Zn(II) in solution. Pretreatment of M. oleifera biomass affected the sorption process and the uptake capacity (mg/g) of biomass for Zn(II) uptake was in following order: NaOH (45.76) > H2SO4 (45.00) > CTAB (42.80) > Ca(OH)(2) (42.60) > Triton X-100 (42.06) > H3PO4 (41.22) > Al(OH)(3) (41.06) > SDS(40.41) > HCl (37.00) > non-treated biomass (36.07). There was significant increase in uptake capacity of M. oleifera biomass, which suggested that affinity between metal and sorbent can be increased after some sort of pretreatment. Both Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm model fitted well to data of Zn(II) biosorption as represented by high value of their correlation coefficient (i.e. R-2 approximate to 1). Kinetic studies revealed that Zn(II) uptake was fast with 90% or more of uptake occurring with in 40 min of contact time and the equilibrium was reached in 50 min of contact time. The sorption rates were better described by a second order expression than by a more commonly applied Lagergen equation. Finally it was concluded that pretreatment of M. oleifera biomass can achieve superior Zn(II) uptake capacity in comparison to non-pretreated biomass.

URL:

http://cat.inist.fr/?aModele=afficheN&cpsidt=18635423

 

 

 

 

 

 

201.

Authors:

Marobhe, Nancy Jotharn

Title:

Critical review of water supply services in urban and rural areas of Tanzania

Publication:

WATER POLICY

Abstract:

Despite several reforms in the water sector coupled with significant external financial assistance for water development projects, a large population in Tanzaniafaces water supply problems. This paper analyses issues and problems pertaining to urban and rural water supply services in Tanzaniaby citing examples from Dar es SalaamCityand Singida rural district. Desk study, field visits, discussions and personal observations were used for collecting information. Water supply coverage is 73% and 53% for urban and rural areas, respectively. Only 30% of the population in Dar es Salaamis served by piped water. The unserved poorer segments of the population pay higher for water services. The water distribution systems are worn out and account for 60% of water loss. Inadequate coverage of water supply is associated with prevalence of waterborne diseases. Urban water authorities are inefficient in financial management. Water tariffs are low, ranging between US$ 0.25 and US$ 0.35/m(3)/month and unregistered customers exceed 110, 000. Singida rural water sources include dams, shallow and deep wells. About 70% of installed pumps are impaired owing to poor management. Rural populations use polluted sources which are purified using local seeds. Finally the paper gives recommendations for improving water supply services.

URL:

http://cat.inist.fr/?aModele=afficheN&cpsidt=20017930

 

202.

Authors:

Singh, Ramesh P.
Singh, Akhilesh K.
Singh, Rudra P.

Title:

The effect of the availability of bee forage and environmental conditions on the nesting of Apis dorsata Fabr.

Publication:

JOURNAL OF APICULTURAL RESEARCH

Abstract:

Nesting of Apis dorsata Fabr. was influenced by the availability of forage plants and prevailing temperatures. There was an assured nectar and pollen supply during October to June through the flowering of more than twenty nectariferous plants, major ones being: Brassica campestris; Brassica rapa; Cajanus cajan; Moringa oleifera; Bombax ceiba; Helianthus annuus; Syzygium cumini; Emblica officinalis and Pongamia pinnata. The total numbers of nesting colonies were 28 in November and four in June coinciding with abundant food and optimum temperature in the first half and a decline later on. The greatest number of nests (35) was observed in January, at semi protected (32) and unprotected (3) sites, when minimum and maximum average temperatures were 7.8 and 24.2 degrees C, respectively. The numbers of bee colonies at such sites in June, when the minimum and maximum temperatures were 26.8 and 33.7 degrees C declined to four and none, respectively. May and June maximum temperature ranged between 40 to 45 degrees C during daylight hours, and average temperature was about 11.4 degrees C higher than November. However, in 2000, the highest number of colonies (33 and 35), was observed in January when temperature was the lowest (5.8-7.8 degrees C).

URL:

http://www.entomology.bio.pu.ru/personal/kipyatkov/pdf/publ/life_cycles-2006.pdf#page=135

 

203.

Authors:

Kwaambwa, H. M.
Maikokera, R.

Title:

A fluorescence spectroscopic study of a coagulating protein extracted from Moringa oleifera seeds

Publication:

COLLOIDS ANDSURFACES B-BIOINTERFACES

Abstract:

The fluorescence studies of coagulating protein extracted from Moringa oleifera seeds have been studied using steady-state intrinsic fluorescence. The fluorescence spectra are dominated by tryptophan emission and the emission peak maximum (lambda(max) = 343 +/- 2 nm) indicated that the tryptophan residue is not located in the hydrophobic core of the protein. Changes in solution pH affected the protein conformation as indicated by changes in the tryptophan fluorescence above pH 9 whereas the ionic strength had minimal effect. The exposure and environments of the tryptophan residue were determined using collisional quenchers. (C) 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

URL:

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17646090

 

204.

Authors:

Cova, Luis Jose
Garcia, Danny Eugenio
Castro, Alexander Rafael
Medina, Maria Gabriela

Title:

Detrimental effect of Moringa oleifera (Lam.) combined with other agricultural wastes as substrates for the red worm (Eisenia spp.)

Publication:

INTERCIENCIA

Abstract:

An experiment was carried out to study the behavior of the red worm (Eisenia spp.) fed with 5 nutritious substrates based in Moringa oleifera (Lam.) foliage, for the nutritional potentialities, and other agricultural wastes in Trujillo state, Venezuela. A randomized design with repeated measurements and three replicates was used. Initially, 1.16kg of biomass. in 0.5m(3) of substrate were inoculated and biomass, mature worms, young worms, baby worms and capsules were determined. The components of each substrate exhibited an appropriate chemical composition for the breeding of this annelid. However M. oleifera showed substantial quantities of terpens, lectins, saponins and tannins. A significant effect substrates x time of measure in all stages was observed (P < 0,05). When the substrates contained M. oleifera foliage, the presence of worms and capsules was not observed from the second month of evaluation onwards. With bovine manure substrate the best results (20g of biomass, 133 total worms and 29 capsules in 1900ml) were obtained after four months. The negative effect of M. oleifera foliage in the feeding of the red worm could be due to the presence of secondary metabolites with anti-nutritional and/our toxic properties.

URL:

http://direct.bl.uk/bld/PlaceOrder.do?UIN=221069284&ETOC=RN&from=searchengine

 

205.

Authors:

Makkar, H. P. S.
Francis, G.
Becker, K.

Title:

Bioactivity of phytochernicals in some lesser-known plants and their effects and potential applications in livestock and aquaculture production systems

Publication:

ANIMAL

Abstract:

Livestock and aquaculture production is under political and social pressure, especially in the European Union (EU), to decrease pollution and environmental damage arising due to animal agriculture. The EU has banned the use of antibiotics and other chemicals, which have been shown to be effective in promoting growth and reducing environment pollutants because of the risk caused to humans by chemical residues in food and by antibiotic resistance being passed on to human pathogens. As a result of this, scientists have intensified efforts in exploiting plants, plant extracts or natural plant compounds as potential natural alternatives for enhancing the livestock productivity. This paper discusses work on the effects of various phytochemicals and plant secondary metabolites in ruminant and fish species. The focus is on (i) plants such as Ananas comosus (pine apple), Momordica charantia (bitter gourd) and Azadirachta indica (neem) containing anthelmintic compounds and for their use for controlling internal parasites; (ii) plants containing polyphenols and their applications for protecting proteins from degradation in the rumen, increasing efficiency of microbial protein synthesis in rumen and decreasing methane emission; for using as antioxidants, antibacterial and antihelmintic agents; and for changing meat colour and for increasing n-3 fatty acids and conjugated linoleic acid in meat; (iii) saponin-rich plants such as quillaja, yucca and Sapindus saponaria for increasing the efficiency of rumen fermentation, decreasing methane emission and enhancing growth, for producing desired nutritional attributes such as lowering of cholesterol in monogastric animals; for increasing growth of fish (common carp and Nile tilapia) and for changing male to female ratio in tilapia; and for use as molluscicidal agents; (iv) Moringa oleifera leaves as a source of plant growth factor(s), antioxidants, beta-carotene, vitamin C, and various glucosinolates and their degraded products for possible use as antibacterial, antioxidant, anticarcinogenic and antipest agents, (v) Jatropha curcas toxic variety with high levels of various phytochemicals such as trypsin inhibitor lectin, phytate and phorbol esters in seeds limiting the use of seed meal in fish and livestock diets; and the use of phorbol esters as bio-pesticidal agent, and (vi) lesser-known legumes such as Entada phaseoloides seeds containing high levels of trypsin inhibitor and saponins, Sesbania aculeate seeds rich in non-starch polysaccharides and Mucuna pruriens var. utilis seeds rich in L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine and their potential as fish feed; Cassia fistula seeds as a source of antioxidants; and the use of Canavalia ensiformis, C. gladiata and C. virosa seeds containing high levels of ttypsin inhinitor, lectins and canavanine. The paper also presents some challenges and future areas of work in this field.

URL:

http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayAbstract?fromPage=online&aid=1358260

 

206.

Authors:

Ashraf, F.
Gilani, S. R.

Title:

Fatty acids in Moringa oleifeta oil

Publication:

JOURNAL OF THE CHEMICAL SOCIETY OF PAKISTAN

Abstract:

The research work was conducted to investigate the total fatly acid contents in Moringa (Moringa oleifera) seed kernels oil by GLC. The oil was found to contain high level of unsaturated fatty acids. The dominant saturated fatty acids were Palmitic acid (12.51 %) and Lauric acid (1.97 %). The percentages of other fatty acids in Moringa oleifera seed kernel oil were Stearic acid (2.09 %), Linoleic acid (1.27 %) and Linolenic acid (1.75 %). Oleic acid (74.99 %) was the most abundant of the unsaturated fatty acids found in Moringa oleifera seed kernels oil. The above chemical composition of the oil recommends its use in pharmaceutical preparation preferably in skin treatment/ creams.

URL:

No url

 

207.

Authors:

Flora, S. J. S.
Gupta, Richa

Title:

Beneficial effects of Centella asiatica aqueous extract against arsenic-induced oxidative stress and essential metal status in rats

Publication:

PHYTOTHERAPY RESEARCH

Abstract:

The efficacy of an aqueous extract of Centella asiatica (100, 200 and 500 mg/kg for 5 consecutive days) was studied in the depletion of arsenic and in the recovery of a few altered biochemical variables in arsenic preexposed rats (20 ppm in drinking water for 5 weeks). Exposure to arsenic significantly depleted delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) activity, reduced glutathione (GSH) level, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and increased thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) activity in red blood cells. Significant depletion of ALAD activity, GSHlevel, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), SOD and catalase (CAT) activities and an increase in TBARS levels in liver tissues was also noted. There was a significant depletion of SOD, CATand GPx activities in kidneys and an increased TBARS levels in kidney and brain accompanied by increased arsenic concentration in blood and soft tissues. Treatment with aqueous extract of Centella asiatica provided significant protection against ALAD, GSHand TBARS levels, particularly at doses of 200 and 500 mg. Centella asiatica also provided significant recovery in the inhibited liver ALAD and G6PD activities. Arsenic concentration in blood and soft tissues remained uninfluenced after Centella asiatica administration. The present study thus suggests a beneficial effect of Centella asiatica against arsenic-induced oxidative stress but possesses no chelating property.

URL:

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17600859

 

208.

Authors:

Devi, Riteshma
Arcot, Jayashree
Sotheeswaran, Subramanium
Ali, Sadaquat

Title:

Folate contents of some selected Fijian foods using tri-enzyme extraction method

Publication:

FOOD CHEMISTRY

Abstract:

Folic acid and total folate contents of 18 common foods in the Fijian diet were assayed. Foods were purchased from the central and eastern parts of Viti Levuin Fiji. Tri-enzyme treatment was performed to release bound folates using protease and alpha-amylase, with chicken pancreas as the conjugase. The highest total folate content was recorded for egg yolk (Gallus domesticus) at 256 mu g/100 g, followed by long beans (Vigna sesquipedalis) which contained 130 mu g/100 g of total folate (fresh weight basis). The local leafy vegetable called Bele (Abelmoschus manihot) and the Drumstick leaves (Moringa oleifera) available in Fijialso had high total folate contents, above 100 mu g/100 g (fresh weight basis). For the 18 foods studied, the content of folic acid ranged from 3 to 189 mu g/100 g and the total folate content was in the range of 3-256 mu g/100 g, indicating a very wide range of folate content in the foods studied.

URL:

http://cat.inist.fr/?aModele=afficheN&cpsidt=19100781

 

209.

Authors:

Roy, Sadhan K.
Chandra, Krishnendu
Ghosh, Kaushik
Mondal, Subhas
Maiti, Debabrata
Ojha, Arnab K.
Das, Debsankar
Mondal, Soumitra
Chakraborty, Indranil
Islam, Syed S.

Title:

Structural investigation of a heteropolysaccharide isolated from the pods (fruits) of Moringa oleifera (Sajina)

Publication:

CARBOHYDRATE RESEARCH

Abstract:

A water-soluble polysaccharide was isolated from the aqueous extract of pods of Moringa oleifera. The polysaccharide contains D-galactose, 6-O-Me-D-galactose, D-galacturonic acid, L-arabinose, and L-rhammose in a molar ratio of 1:1:1:1:1. On the basis of total hydrolysis, methylation analysis, periodate oxidation, and NMR(H-1, C-13, TOCSY, DQF-COSY, NOESY, ROESY, HSQC, and HMBC) studies, the repeating unit of the polysaccharide is established as[GRAPHICS].

URL:

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17709101

 

210. Authors:

Doughari, J. H.
Pukuma, M. S.
De, N.

Title:

Antibacterial effects of Balanites aegyptiaca L. Drel. and Moringa oleifera Lam. on Salmonella typhi

Publication:

AFRICAN JOURNAL OF BIOTECHNOLOGY

Abstract:

The aqueous and organic leaves extracts of Balanites aegyptiaca and Moringa oleifera traditionally used for the treatment of infectious disease were tested for their activity against Salmonella typhi isolated from blood clot culture using the disc diffusion method. Extracts of B. aegyptiaca demonstrated higher activity (16 mm zone of inhibition) than those of Moringa oleifera (8 mm zone of inhibition) at 100 mg/ml. Of the three solvents used, ethanolic extracts of both plants demonstrated the highest activity, while the aqueous extracts showed the least activity at 100 mg/ml. The activities of these plant extracts were comparable to those of antibiotics, ciprofloxacin, cotrimoxazole and chloramphenicol, commonly used for treating typhoid fever. The antibacterial activity appears to increase when extracts of the two plants were used in combination at 100 mg/ml each (18 mm zone of inhibition). Preliminary phytochemical screening showed that both plant extracts contains saponins, tannins and phenols while only M. oleifera possesses alkaloids and B. aegyptiaca possesses anthraquinones. The antibacterial activities of the extracts on S. typhi was reasonably stable when treated at 4, 30, 60 and 100 degrees C for 1 h, however it reduces significantly when the pH was altered towards alkalinity.

URL:

http://indianmedicine.eldoc.ub.rug.nl/root/D2/92d/

 

211.

Authors:

Boucher, J.
Steiner, L.
Marison, I. W.

Title:

Bio-sorption of atrazine in the press-cake from oilseeds

Publication:

WATER RESEARCH

Abstract:

Oilseed press-cake (PC) is proposed as a novel material for the removal of hydrophobic organic pollutants (HOPs) from water. Sorption of the pesticides carbaryl, atrazine and parathion, with logK(ow) being, respectively, 1.59, 2.55 and 3.83, was demonstrated using cold-pressed rapeseed (Brassica napus), moringa (Moringa oleifera) and soybean (Glycine max) PCs. Linear sorption isotherms have been observed. The partition coefficient of carbaryl, atrazine and parathion using rapeseed PC were determined to be 0.028 +/- 0.003, 0.144 +/- 0.003 and 2.52 +/- 0.24L/g, respectively Partition studies of atrazine in PC-extracted oil and defatted PC showed that the sorption mechanism is mainly through absorption in the residual oil in the PC, whereas adsorption on the PC matrix is quantitatively much less significant.
It was also shown that the oil content of the PC is not the only parameter determining the partitioning of pesticides. Indeed, sorption using ground seeds was very weak, as demonstrated by the low partition and mass transfer coefficients. This may be due to cell structures blocking the pesticide diffusion to the oil-containing structures within the seeds, while for PC oil they are present in the form of small (10 mu m) droplets trapped within the hydrophilic PC matrix, thus presenting less resistance for mass transfer.

URL:

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17575996

 

212.

Authors:

Debnath, Siddhartha
Guha, Debjani

Title:

Role of Moringa oleifera on enterochromaffin cell count and serotonin content of experimental ulcer model

Publication:

INDIAN JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL BIOLOGY

Abstract:

The present study has been undertaken to observe the effect of aqueous extract of M. oleifera (MO) leaf (300mg/kg body weight) on mean ulcer index, enterochromaffin (EC) cells and serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) content of ulcerated gastric tissue. Ulceration was induced by using aspirin (500 mg/kg, po), cerebellar nodular lesion and applying cold stress. In all cases increased mean ulcer index in gastric tissue along with decreased EC cell count was observed with concomitant decrease of 5-HT content. Pretreatment with MO for 14 days decreased mean ulcer index, increased both EC cell count and 5-HT content in all ulcerated group, but treatment with ondansetron, a 5-HT3 receptor antagonist, along with MO pretreatment increased mean ulcer index, decreased 5-HT content without any alteration in EC cell count. The results suggest that the protective effect of MO on ulceration is mediated by increased EC cell count and 5-HT levels which may act via 5-HT3 receptors on gastric tissue.

URL:

http://nopr.niscair.res.in/handle/123456789/5315

 

213.

Authors:

Uma, N. L. G.
Fakurazi, S.
Hairuszah, I.
Mohanambal, M.
Taufik, M. H. B.
Zulkhairi, A.
Sukardi, S.
Ganabadi, S.
Bahaman, A. S.

Title:

Hepatoprotective action of Moringa oleifera Lam

Publication:

PLANTA MEDICA

Abstract:

Abstract not available

URL:

http://www.liebertonline.com/doi/abs/10.1089/10966200260398206

 

214.

Authors:

Saketh, Ram T.
Shridhar, A.
Rajasekaran, R.
Sampath, Kumar K.

Title:

Moringa oleifera Lam root bark decoction (MORBD) in urolithiasis management – A pilot study

Publication:

PLANTA MEDICA

Abstract:

Abstract not available

URL:

URL not available

 

215.

Authors:

Abdulkarim, S. M.
Long, K.
Lai, O. M.
Muhammad, S. K. S.
Ghazali, H. M.

Title:

Frying quality and stability of high-oleic Moringa oleifera seed oil in comparison with other vegetable oils

Publication:

FOOD CHEMISTRY

Abstract:

The performance of the high-oleic Moringa oleifera seed oil (MoO) in deep-frying was evaluated by comparing its frying stability with other conventional frying oils [canola (CLO), soybean (SBO), and palm olein (1`0)]. The oils were used as a frying media to fry potato chips for 6 h a day up to a maximum of 5 days. Standard methods for the determination of used frying oil deterioration such as changes in color, viscosity, free fatty acids (FFA), peroxide value (PV), p-anisidine value (p-AV), iodine value (IV), specific extinction (E broken vertical bar(%)(cm)233 and 269 nm) and total polar compounds (TPQ were used to evaluate the oils. At the end of the frying period, the change in percent FFA from the initial to final day of frying were as follows SBO (60.0%), PSO(65.0%), MoCi (66.6%) and CLO (71.4%) and the change in p-AV and TOTOX value of MoO were found to be significantly lower (P < 0.05) than the rest of the oils tested, followed by PO, with the highest values obtained in CLO and SBO. The levels of conjugated dienes and trienes (El,broken vertical bar(%)(cm) 233 and 269 nm) throughout the frying period were lowest in MoO and POfollowed CLO, with highest levels found in SBO. The rate of darkening and increase in viscosity were proportional to the frying time for all the oils. POdarkened earlier followed by CLO. At the end of frying period, TPCwas significantly (P < 0.05) lower in Moo (20.78%) and PSO(21.23%), as compared to CLO (28.73%) and SBO (31.82%).

URL:

http://psasir.upm.edu.my/7093/

 

216.

Authors:

Tewari, Amit
Bhakuni, Rajendra S.

Title:

Thiocarbamates from Moringa oleifera

Publication:

NATURAL PRODUCT COMMUNICATIONS

Abstract:

Two new thiocarbamates (I and 2) along with two known compounds have been isolated from the ethyl acetate extract of Moringa oleifera seeds. The new compounds were characterized as O-n-butyl-4-[(alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyloxy)benzyl] thiocarbamate (E) (1) and O-ethyl-4-[(alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyloxy)-3-hydroxybenzyl]thiocarbamate (E) (2) on the basis of 1D and 2D NMRspectroscopic data and MS analysis.

URL:

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7766390

 

217.

Authors:

Shanker, Karuna
Gupta, Madan M.
Srivastava, Santosh K.
Bawankule, Dnyaneshwar U.
Pal, Anirban
Khanuja, Surnan P. S.

Title:

Determination of bioactive nitrile glycoside(s) in drumstick (Moringa oleifera) by reverse phase HPLC

Publication:

FOOD CHEMISTRY

Abstract:

A high-performance liquid chromatographic method for the determination of novel bioactive nitrile glycosides niaziridin and niazirin in the leaves, pods and bark of Moringa oleifera is reported. Niaziridin is a bioenhancer for drugs and nutrients. The analytical conditions for reversed-phase HPLC with UV detection were as follows: column, Chromolith RP-18 e, 4.6 x 100 mm 0.5 mu m (Merck); column temperature, 25 degrees C mobile phase, a 20:80 (% v/v) mixture of acetonitrile: Phosphate buffer – pH 3.8; flow rate, 0.7 ml/min; detection at 220nm. Method precision (relative standard deviation) was 1.81% for niaziridin and 1.94% for niazirin. Niaziridin (0.015% and 0.039%) and niazirin (0.038% and 0.033%) are present in leaves and pods, respectively. Niaziridin and mazirin were not detected in the bark of M oleifera. Relatively higher amount of niazirin was present in leaves in comparisons to the pods while niaziridin content was about three times higher in the pods than the leaves of the M. oleifera. The method is robust to evaluate niaziridin and niazirin in samples from M. oleifera as well as for quality assurance of pharmacologically active standardized extract.

URL:

http://cat.inist.fr/?aModele=afficheN&cpsidt=18956344

 

218.

Authors:

Ndong, Moussa
Uehara, Mariko
Katsumata, Shinichi
Sato, Shigeru
Suzuki, Kazuharu

Title:

Preventive effects of Moringa oleifera (Lam) on hyperlipidemia and hepatocyte ultrastructural changes in iron deficient rats

Publication:

BIOSCIENCE BIOTECHNOLOGY ANDBIOCHEMISTRY

Abstract:

The effects of Moringa oleifera (MO), Moringaceae on hyperlipidemia and hepatocyte ultrastructural changes caused by iron deficiency were investigated. Four-weekold male Wistar-strain rats were fed a control diet based on AIN-93G (C), an iron deficient diet (Fel)), a FeD + 0.5 % MO (FeD-m) diet, or a FeD + MO I% (FeD-M) diet for 4 weeks. It was found that MO reduced irondeficient diet-induced increases in serum and hepatic lipids with dose-dependent increases of serum quercetin and kaempherol, but did not prevent anemia. By electron microscopy, in iron deficient hepatocytes, slightly swollen mitochondria and few glycogen granules were observed, but glycogen granules increased and mitochondria were normalized by treatment with MO. Furthermore, lipoproteins were observed in the Golgi complex under treatment with MO. These results suggest a possible beneficial effect of MO in the prevention of hyperlipidemia and ultrastructural changes in hepatocytes due to iron-deficiency.

URL:

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17690476

 

219.

Authors:

Kwaambwa, Habauka M.

Maikokera, Raymond

Title:

Air-water interface interaction of anionic, cationic, and nonionic surfactants with a coagulant protein extracted from Moringa oleifera seeds studied using surface tension probe

Publication:

WATER SA

Abstract:

The interaction of coagulating protein extracted from Moringa oleifera seeds with the anionic surfactant sodium his (2-ethyl- 1-hexylsulfosuccinate (AOT), the cationic surfactant hexadecylpyridinium chloride (HDPC) and non-ionic surfactant Triton X-100 (TX-100) were investigated by surface tension measurement. The protein extract interacts strongly with anionic surfactant AOTsuggesting that the former is cationic under conditions studied. HDPC exhibits mild interaction with protein extract whereas the interaction with Triton X-100, if any, could not be detected by this technique.

URL:

http://cat.inist.fr/?aModele=afficheN&cpsidt=18977729

 

220.

Authors:

Pullakhandam, Raghu
Failla, Mark L.

Title:

Micellarization and intestinal cell uptake of delta-carotene and lutein from drumstick (Moringa oleifera) leaves

Publication:

JOURNAL OF MEDICINAL FOOD

Abstract:

The leaves and pods of the drumstick tree are used as food and medicine in some Asian and African countries. Although relatively high concentrations of beta-carotene and lutein have been reported in the leaves, the bioavailability of these carotenoids from this source is unknown. We have analyzed the digestive stability and bioaccessibility of carotenoids in fresh and lyophilized drumstick leaves using the coupled in vitro digestion/Caco-2 cell model. beta-Carotene and lutein were stable during simulated gastric and small intestinal digestion. The efficiency of micellarization of lutein during the small intestinal phase of digestion exceeded that of beta-carotene. Addition of peanut oil (5% vol/wt) to the test food increased micellarization of both carotenoids, and particularly beta-carotene. Caco-2 cells accumulated beta-carotene and lutein from micelles generated during digestion of drumstick leaves in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. The relatively high bioaccessibility of beta-carotene and lutein from drumstick leaves ingested with oil supports the potential use of this plant food for improving vitamin A nutrition and perhaps delaying the onset of some degenerative diseases such as cataracts.

URL:

No url

 

221.

Authors:

Arabshahi-Delouee, Saeedeh
Urooj, Asna

Title:

Application of phenolic extracts from selected plants in fruit juice

Publication:

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF FOOD PROPERTIES

Abstract:

Plant phenolics have gained considerable interest in recent years for their potential effects against food related microorganisms. In the present study, phenolic extracts from the leaves of three plants namely Moringa oleifera, Morus indica, and Mentha spicata were prepared by a mixture of methanol/acetone/water. The UV spectra of extracts were recorded and contents of total phenolics determined. The extracts were incorporated in pineapple juice and their solubility and stability were studied. In addition, the acceptability of treated juice samples was sensory evaluated. The solubility of M. indica and M. oleifera extracts was found to be more than that of M. spicata. The two extracts were also stable in the pH environment of pineapple juice when stored at 4 degrees C for two weeks. The pineapple juice treated with M. indica extract was more acceptable compared to that of M. oleifera, according to sensory evaluation. Therefore, the effect of addition of phenolic extract from M. indica on the shelf life of pineapple juice stored at 4 degrees C was investigated by monitoring the changes in titrable acidity and sensory parameters for 8 weeks. Results indicated that the extracts of natural phenolic compounds can be used to improve the quality and safety of foods.

URL:

http://direct.bl.uk/bld/PlaceOrder.do?UIN=213290810&ETOC=RN&from=searchengine

 

222.

Authors:

Bhatia, Subhash
Othman, Zalina
Ahmad, Abdul Latif

Title:

Coagulation-flocculation process for POME treatment using Moringa oleifera seeds extract: Optimization studies

Publication:

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING JOURNAL

Abstract:

The treatment of palm oil mill effluent, POME is an important issue for the minimization of water pollution. The coagulation-flocculation process using Moringa oleifera seeds after oil extraction as natural coagulant is reported for POME treatment in the present study. The important process parameters pH, settling time, M. oleifera (after oil extraction) dosage and flocculant (NALCO 775 1) dosage were optimized using design of experiments (DOE). A full factorial composite experimental design and response surface methodology (RSM) were used to obtain the optimum values of the parameters. The suspended solids of the raw POME were reduced from 17.927 mg/L to 181 mg/L and % recovery of the sludge as 87% was obtained at an optimum pH 5, settling time 114 min, M. oleifera dosage of 3469 mg/L and 6736 mgL of flocculant (NALCO 7751) dosage in the present study.

URL:

http://cat.inist.fr/?aModele=afficheN&cpsidt=18875492

 

223.

Authors:

Ndong, Moussa
Uehara, Mariko
Katsumata, Shin-ichi
Suzuki, Kazuharu

Title:

Effects of oral administration of Moringa oleifera Lam on glucose tolerance in Goto-Kakizaki and Wistar rats

Publication:

JOURNAL OF CLINICAL BIOCHEMISTRY ANDNUTRITION

Abstract:

Medicinal plants constitute an important source of potential therapeutic agents for diabetes. In the present study, we investigated the effects of Moringa oleifera (MO) Lam, Moringacea, on glucose tolerance in Wistar rats and Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats, modeled type 2 diabetes. Major polyphenols in MO powder were quercetin glucosides, rutin, kaempferol glycosides and chlorogenic acids by HPLC analysis. As the results of glucose tolerance test, MO significantly decreased the blood glucose at 20, 30, 45 and 60 min for GK rats and at 10, 30 and 45 min for Wistar rats (p<0.05) compared to the both controls after glucose administration. The area under the curve of changes in the blood glucose was significantly higher in the GK control group than in the GK plus MO group (p<0.05) in the periods 30-60 min and 60-120 min. Furthermore, MO significantly decreased stomach emptying in GK rats (P<0.05). The results indicated that MO has an ameliorating effect for glucose intolerance, and the effect might be mediated by quercetin-3-glucoside and fiber contents in MO leaf powder. The action of MO was greater in GK rats than in Wistar rats.

URL:

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2275769/

 

224.

Authors:

Marobhe, N. J.
Dalhal, G.
Gunaratna, K. R.

Title:

Simple and rapid methods for purification and characterization of active coagulants from the seeds of Vigna unguiculata and Parkinsonia aculeata

Publication:

ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY

Abstract:

The coagulating properties of aqueous crude extracts and purified proteins of Vigna unguicilata and Parkinsomia aculeata seeds, which are traditional water coagulants in rural areas of Tanzania, were studied. The coagulation activity assays were done using one millilitre (ml) of kaolin water samples. Coagulating proteins were purified in two-step ion exchange chromatography. The properties of coagulant protein were compared with Moringa oleifera. Coagulating components eluted by 0.6 M NaCl in both coagulants are cationic proteins that have the molecular mass of about 6 kDa, which is very similar to that of M. oleifera. The proteins of V. unguiculata and P. aculeata eluted by 0.3 M NaCl also harbour coagulation activity but proteins eluted with 0.6 M NaCl have higher activity. The dosage for coagulation using purified proteins of both coagulants is about 5 to 10 times lower than that of crude seed extracts. The optimum floc settling time of water treated by crude seed extracts and purified proteins ranged between two and two and half hours. Coagulating proteins of both coagulants elated by 0.6 M NaCl are thermoresistant and retained coagulation activity of 87% to 92% after boiling for two hours at 80 degrees C and one hour at 95 degrees C. Thermotolerant proteins of V. unguiculata eluted by 0.6 M NaCl and P. aculeata have wider pH range of 5.5 to 8.5 for coagulation activity than those of M. oleifera proteins. The present investigation reveals the possibility of using purified natural coagulants for water treatment to produce safe drinking water.

URL:

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17624107

 

225.

Authors:

Sajidu, S. M., I
Henry, E. M. T.
Persson, I
Masamba, W. R. L.
Kayambazinthu, D.

Title:

pH dependence of sorption of Cd2+, Zn2+, Cu2+ and Cr3+ on crude water and sodium chloride extracts of Moringa stenopetala and Moringa oleifera

Publication:

AFRICAN JOURNAL OF BIOTECHNOLOGY

Abstract:

The ability of crude water and sodium chloride extracts of partially defatted powder of Moringa stenopetala (MS) and Moringa oleifera (MO) to remove heavy metals (Cd2+, Zn2+, Cu2+ and Cr3+) from single ion solution was investigated. At initial metal concentration of about 4 ppm, the extracts showed complete sorption for Cd2+, Zn2+ and Cr3+ ions at pH above 7.8, 4.0 and 4.0, respectively, at a dose of 1.0 ml of sorbent in 9.50 ml of metal solution. Cu2+ sorption increases slightly with pH to about 60% for MS at pH 6 and then becomes constant up to pH 8 when sorption rises to completion. Preliminary characterization of the actual powder by proton nuclear magnetic resonance showed clear presence of amide (-CO-N-H), benzenoid (Ar-H), saturated alkyl and unsaturated fragments in both MS and MO. The mass spectrum showed the presence of amino (R-NH2) fragments. The remarkable heavy metal sorption ability of M. stenopetala and M. oleifera could thus be attributable to, among other mechanisms, coordination or complex formation between the metal cations and pH dependent oxygen and nitrogen anionic sites of the Moringa proteins.

URL:

No url

 

226.

Authors:

Pretreatment of palm oil mill effluent (POME) using Moringa oleifera seeds as natural coagulant

Title:

JOURNAL OF HAZARDOUS MATERIALS

Publication:

Moringa oleifera seeds, an environmental friendly and natural coagulant are reported for the pretreatment of palm oil mill effluent (POME). In coagulation-flocculation process, the M. oleifera seeds after oil extraction (MOAE) are an effective coagulant with the removal of 95% suspended solids and 52.2% reduction in the chemical oxygen demand (COD). The combination of MOAE with flocculant (NALCO 7751), the suspended solids removal increased to 99.3% and COD reduction was 52.5%. The coagulation-flocculation process at the temperature of 30 degrees C resulted in better suspended solids removal and COD reduction compared to the temperature of 40, 55 and 70 degrees C. The MOAE combined with flocculant (NALCO 7751) reduced the sludge volume index (SVI) to 210 mL/g with higher recovery of dry mass of sludge (87.25%) and water (50.3%).

Abstract:

Moringa oleifera seeds, an environmental friendly and natural coagulant are reported for the pretreatment of palm oil mill effluent (POME). In coagulation-flocculation process, the M. oleifera seeds after oil extraction (MOAE) are an effective coagulant with the removal of 95% suspended solids and 52.2% reduction in the chemical oxygen demand (COD). The combination of MOAE with flocculant (NALCO 7751), the suspended solids removal increased to 99.3% and COD reduction was 52.5%. The coagulation-flocculation process at the temperature of 30 degrees C resulted in better suspended solids removal and COD reduction compared to the temperature of 40, 55 and 70 degrees C. The MOAE combined with flocculant (NALCO 7751) reduced the sludge volume index (SVI) to 210 mL/g with higher recovery of dry mass of sludge (87.25%) and water (50.3%).

URL:

http://cat.inist.fr/?aModele=afficheN&cpsidt=18847723

 

227.

Authors:

Devaraj, V. C.
Asad, Mohammed
Prasad, Satya

Title:

PHARMACEUTICAL BIOLOGY

Publication:

PHARMACEUTICAL BIOLOGY

Abstract:

The effect of different extracts of leaves and fruits of Moringa oleifera Lam. (Moringaceae) on gastric and duodenal ulcers was evaluated by using different gastric ulcer models and cysteamine-induced duodenal ulcer method. The leaf extracts (500 mg/kg, p.o.) of Moringa oleifera showed gastric ulcer healing effect in acetic acid-induced chronic gastric ulcers. The acetone extract and methanol extract of the leaves produced gastric antisecretory effect in pylorus-ligated rats and showed gastric cytoprotective effect in ethanol-induced and indomethacin-induced gastric ulcers. The leaf extracts also produced a significant reduction of stress-induced gastric ulcers and cysteamine-induced duodenal ulcers. None of the extracts of the fruits showed any significant antiulcer effect. It was concluded that leaves of Moringa oleifera increase healing of gastric ulcers and also prevent the development of experimentally induced gastric ulcers and duodenal ulcers in rats.

URL:

http://informahealthcare.com/doi/abs/10.1080/13880200701212924

 

228.

Authors:

Manzoor, Maleeha
Anwar, Farooq
Iqbal, Tahira
Bhanger, M. I.

Title:

Physico-chemical characterization of Moringa concanensis seeds and seed oil

Publication:

JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN OIL CHEMISTS SOCIETY

Abstract:

The present work reports the characterization and comparison of Moringa concanensis seed oil from Tharparkar (a drought hit area), Pakistan. The hexane-extracted oil content of M. concanensis seeds ranged from 37.56 to 40.06% (average 38.82%). Protein, fiber, moisture and ash contents were found to be 30.07, 6.00, 5.88 and 9.00%, respectively. The extracted oil exhibited an iodine value of 67.00; a refractive index (40 degrees C) of 1.4648; its density (24 degrees C) was 0.8660 mg mL(-1); the saponification value (mg of KOH g(-1) of oil) was 179.00; unsaponifiable matter 0.78%; color (1 in. cell) 1.90R + 19.00Y; and acidity (% as oleic acid) 0.34%. Tocopherols (alpha, gamma, and delta) in the oil accounted for 72.11, 9.26 and 33.87 mg kg(-1), respectively. Specific extinctions at 232 and 270 nm were 3.17 and 0.65, respectively. The peroxide and p-anisidine values of the oil were found to be 1.75 and 1.84 meq kg(-1), respectively. The induction periods (Rancimat, 20 L h(-1), 120 degrees C) of the crude oil was 10.81 h and reduced to 8.90 h after degumming. The M. concanensis oil was found to contain high levels of oleic acid (up to 68.00%) followed by palmitic, stearic, behenic, and arachidic acids up to levels of 11.04, 3.58, 3.44 and 7.09%, respectively. The results of the present analytical study, compared with those for other Moringa species and different vegetable oils, showed M. concanensis to be a potentially valuable non-conventional seed crop for high quality oil.

URL:

No url

229.

Authors:

Anwar, Farooq
Hussain, Abdullah Ijaz
Iqbal, Shahid
Bhanger, Muhammad Iqbal

Title:

Enhancement of the oxidative stability of some vegetable oils by blending with Moringa oleifera oil

Publication:

FOOD CHEMISTRY

Abstract:

Blends (20%, 40%, 60%, 80% w/w) of Moringa oleifera oil (MOO) with sunflower oil (SFO) and soybean oil (SBO) were prepared to evaluate the changes in fatty acid (FA) composition, oxidative and thermal stability of SFO and SBO. The blending of MOO with SFO and SBO in proportions of 0-80% resulted in the reduction of linoleic acid (C-18:2) content of SFO and SBO from 67.0% to 17.2% and 56.2% to 14.6% and increase in the contents of oleic acid (C-18:1) from 26.2% to 68.3% and 21.4% to 65.9%, factors of 0.72, 0.72 and 1.27, 1.33, respectively. A storage ability test (180 days; ambient conditions) showed an appreciable improvement in the oxidative stability of substrate oils with increase of MOO concentration, as depicted by the least oxidative alterations in PV, IV and highest increase in induction period, IP, of the MOO:SBO (80: 20 w/w) blend. Each 20% addition of MOO resulted in decreases of PV and IV by factors of 0.84, 0.85 and 0.89, 0.88, respectively, and increases in IP by factors of 1.45 and 1.37 of SFO and SBO, respectively.
The heating performance test (180 degrees C for 42 h; 6 h heating cycle per day), as followed by the measurement of polymer contents and total polar contents (TPC), also revealed the MOO:SBO (80:20 w/w) blend to be the most stable. Every 20% addition of MOO in SFO and SBO resulted in reduction of the polymer contents And TPC of SFO and SBO by factors of 0.91, 0.92 and 0.94, 0.94, respectively. On the basis of the present findings, it appears that proper blending of high linoleic oils with MOO can result in oil blends which could meet nutritional needs with improved stability for domestic cooking and deep-frying.

URL:

http://cat.inist.fr/?aModele=afficheN&cpsidt=18670874

 

230.

Authors:

Bhatti, Haq Nawaz
Mumtaz, Beenish
Hanif, Muhammad Asif
Nadeem, Raziya

Title:

Removal of Zn(II) ions from aqueous solution using Moringa oleifera Lam. (horseradish tree) biomass

Publication:

PROCESS BIOCHEMISTRY

Abstract:

The removal of Zn(II) ions from aqueous solution using pure and chemically pretreated biomass of Moringa oleifera was investigated at 30 +/- 1 degrees C in this study. The experimental results explored that the maximum pH (pH(max)) for efficient sorption of Zn(II) was 7 +/- 0.1 at which evaluated biosorbent dosage and biosorbent article size, were 0.5 g/L, < 0.255 mm, respectively. The cellular Zn(II) concentration increased with the concentrations of Zn(II) in solution. Pretreatment of M. oleifera biomass affected the sorption process and the uptake capacity (mg/g) of biomass for Zn(II) uptake was in following order: NaOH (45.76) > H2SO4 (45.00) > CTAB (42.80) > Ca(OH)(2) (42.60) > Triton X-100 (42.06) > H3PO4 (41.22) > Al(OH)(3) (41.06) > SDS(40.41) > HCl (37.00) > non-treated biomass (36.07). There was significant increase in uptake capacity of M. oleifera biomass, which suggested that affinity between metal and sorbent can be increased after some sort of pretreatment. Both Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm model fitted well to data of Zn(II) biosorption as represented by high value of their correlation coefficient (i.e. R-2 approximate to 1). Kinetic studies revealed that Zn(II) uptake was fast with 90% or more of uptake occurring with in 40 min of contact time and the equilibrium was reached in 50 min of contact time. The sorption rates were better described by a second order expression than by a more commonly applied Lagergen equation. Finally it was concluded that pretreatment of M. oleifera biomass can achieve superior Zn(II) uptake capacity in comparison to non-pretreated biomass.

URL:

http://cat.inist.fr/?aModele=afficheN&cpsidt=18635423

 

231.

Authors:

Jamil, Amer
Shahid, Muhammad
Khan, M. Masud-ul-Haq
Ashraf, Muhammad

Title:

Screening of some medicinal plants for isolation of antifungal proteins and peptides

Publication:

PAKISTANJOURNAL OF BOTANY

Abstract:

About three quarters of the world population rely mainly on plants and plant extracts for health care. The global annual sale of botanicals is over $ 62 billion. This data clearly depict the importance of medicinal plants in health and economy. The extracts of some potential medicinal plants such as Hygrophila auriculata, Abrus precatorius, Moringa oleifera, Withania somnifera, Croton tiglium, Solanum nigrum and Psoralea corylifolia were investigated against pathogenic fungal strains of Aspergillus tamarii, Rhizopus solani, Mucor mucedo and Aspergillus niger. After extraction the extracts were purified by ammonium sulphate precipitation followed by gel filtration chromatography (Sephadex G-100) by using Tris HCl as an extraction buffer. Antifungal activity of the extracts was determined by disc diffusion assay. Antifungal activity was found lost in many extracts after treatment with trypsin, which shows that the activity was due to proteins or peptides, but not due to some other compounds.

URL:

http://agris.fao.org/agris-search/search/display.do?f=2008/PK/PK0808.xml;PK2008000747

 

232.

Authors:

Bhuptawat, Hitendra
Folkard, G. K.
Chaudhari, Sanjeev

Title:

Innovative physico-chemical treatment of wastewater incorporating Moringa oleifera seed coagulant

Publication:

JOURNAL OF HAZARDOUS MATERIALS

Abstract:

Moringa oleifera is a pan tropical, multipurpose tree whose seeds contain a high quality edible oil (up to 40% by weight) and water soluble proteins that act as effective coagulants for water and wastewater treatment. The use of this natural coagulant material has not yet realised its potential. A water extract of M. oleifera seed was applied to a wastewater treatment sequence comprising coagulation-flocculation-sedimentation-sand filtration. The study was laboratory based using an actual wastewater. Overall COD removals of 50% were achieved at both 50 and 100 mg/I M. oleifera doses. When 50 and 100 mg/I seed doses were applied in combination with 10 mg/l of alum, COD removal increased to 58 and 64%, respectively. The majority of COD removal occurred during the filtration process. In the tests incorporating alum, sludge generation and filter head loss increased by factors of 3 and 2, respectively. These encouraging treatment results indicate that this may be the first treatment application that can move to large scale adoption. The simple water extract may be obtained at minimal cost from the presscake residue remaining after oil extraction from the seed. The regulatory compliance issues of adopting ‘new materials’ for wastewater treatment are significantly less stringent than those applying to the production of potable water

URL:

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16987603

 

233.

Authors:

Pawar, K. B.
Chavan, P. D.

Title:

Influence of leaf leachates of soybean, Moringa, Parthenium and Eucalyptus on carbohydrate metabolism in germinating seeds of Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench

Publication:

ALLELOPATHY JOURNAL

Abstract:

The study was undertaken to investigate the influence of leaf leachates of Eucalyptus globulus Labill, Moringa oleifera Lamk, Parthenium hysterophorus L. and soybean on carbohydrate metabolism in germinating seeds of Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench var.M.35-1. The leaf leachates of Eucalyptus, Moringa, Parthenium and soybean decreased activity of a amylase and invertase. The leachates also reduced the level of reducing and non-reducing sugars. The leaf leachate of Parthenium leaves caused maximum disturbances in the carbohydrate metabolism.

URL:

http://www.indianjournals.com/ijor.aspx?target=ijor:aj&volume=19&issue=2&article=027

 

234.

Authors:

Abdulsalam, S.
Gital, A. A.
Misau, I. M.
Suleiman, M. S.

Title:

Water clarification using Moringa oleifera seed coagulant: Maiduguriraw water as a case study

Publication:

JOURNAL OF FOOD AGRICULTURE & ENVIRONMENT

Abstract:

A study was carried out on the clarification of Maiduguriraw water (MRW) using extracted and unextracted Moringa oleifera (MO) coagulants. The results showed that the optimum dosages for the extracted and unextracted MO coagulants were 180 and 300 mg/l respectively. The removal efficiencies for the extracted and unextracted MO coagulants at these dosages were 82.35% and 76.47% respectively. Quality parameters, such as colour, turbidity and pH, fell within the standards required for clarified water. The settling times for the extracted and unextracted MO coagulants were higher than that of aluminium sulphate. It was observed that the coagulation process has no effect on the natural hardness and alkalinity. The effect of particle size on the coagulation process indicates that the smaller the particle size of MO coagulants the better the coagulation process.

URL:

http://cat.inist.fr/?aModele=afficheN&cpsidt=18536126

 

235.

Authors:

Akhtar, Mubeena
Hasany, S. Moosa
Bhanger, M. I.
Iqbal, Shahid

Title:

Sorption potential of Moringa oleifera pods for the removal of organic pollutants from aqueous solutions

Publication:

JOURNAL OF HAZARDOUS MATERIALS

Abstract:

Moringa oleifera pods Lamarck (Drumstick or Horseradish) is a multipurpose medium or small size tree from sub-Himalayan regions of north-west Indiaand indigenous to many parts of Asia, Africa, South America, and in the Pacific and CaribbeanIslands. Its pods (MOP) have been employed as an inexpensive and effective sorbent for the removal of organics, i.e., benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and cumene (BTEQ from aqueous solutions using HPLC method. Effect of different parameters, i.e., sorbent dose 0.05-0.8 g, 25 cm(-3) agitation time 5-120 min, pH 1-10, temperature 283-308 K and concentration of sorbate (1.3-13) x 10(-3), (1.1-1 1) x 10(-3), (0.9-9) x 10(-3) (0.8-8) x 10(-3) mol dm(-3), on the sorption potential of MOP for BTEC have been investigated. The pore area and average pore diameter of the MOP by BET method using nitrogen as a standard are calculated to be 28.06 +/- 0.8 m(2) g(-1) and 86.2 +/- 1.3 nm respectively. Freundlich, Langumir and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) sorption isotherms were employed to evaluate the sorption capacity of MOP. Sorption capacities of BTEC onto MOP have been found to be 46 +/- 10, 84 +/- 9, 101 +/- 4, 106 +/- 32 mmol g(-1) by Freundlich, 8 +/- 0.1, 9 +/- 0.1, 10 +/- 0.3, 9 +/- 0.1 mmol g(-1) by Langumir and 15 +/- 1, 21 +/- 1, 23 +/- 2, 22 +/- 3 mmol g(-1) by D-R isotherms respectively, from BTEC solutions at 303 K. While the mean energy of sorption process 9.6 +/- 0.3, 9.2 +/- 0.2, 9.3 +/- 0.3, 9.5 +/- 0.4 kJ mol(-1) for BTEC is calculated by D-R isotherm only. Rate constant of BTEC onto MOP 0.033 +/- 0.003, 0.030 +/- 0.002, 0.029 +/- 0.002, 0.027 +/- 0.002 min(-1) at solution concentration of 1.3 x 10(-3), 1.1 x 10(-3), 0.9 x 10(-3) and 0.8 x 10(-3) mol dm(-3) and at 303 K have been calculated by employing Lagergren equation. Thermodynamic parameters Delta H -8 +/- 0.4, -10 +/- 0.6, -11 0.7, -11 +/- 0.7 kJ mol(-1), Delta S -22 +/- 2, -26 +/- 2, -27 +/- 2, -29 +/- 3 J mol(-1) K-1 and Delta G(303 K) -0.9 +/- 0.2, -1.9 +/- 0.2, -2.3 +/- 0.1 and -2.6 +/- 0.2 kJ mol(-1) were also estimated for BTEC respectively at temperatures 283-308 K. The negative values of Delta H, Delta S and Delta G suggest exothermic, stable (with no structural changes at solid-liquid interface) and spontaneous nature of sorption process under optimized conditions. MOP has been used extensively to accrue and then to preconcentrate benzene, toluene and ethylbenzene in wastewater sample.

URL:

http://cat.inist.fr/?aModele=afficheN&cpsidt=18611711

 

236.

Authors:

Nduwayezu, J. B.
Chamshama, S. A. O.
Mugasha, A. G.
Ngaga, Y. N.
Khonga, E. B.
Chabo, R. G.

Title:

Comparisons in seed kernel sizes and early growth performance of different Moringa oleifera provenances in southeast of Botswana

Publication:

DISCOVERY ANDINNOVATION

Abstract:

Moringa oleifera (moringa) can play an important role in improving rural livelihoods in the tropics but sound seeds and appropriate silvicultural management regimes are needed to improve its productivity. The objective of this study was to compare seed kernel sizes and tree growth performance of 14 moringa provenances. Moringa seed kernel circumference, diameter and dry weight were recorded. Provenance trials were established using healthy 4-months old seedlings at 2.0 m inter-row and intra-row spacing. Tree collar diameter, height and survival rate were determined at 2 months after field planting. PKM1, PKM2, Jaffana and PKM3 provenances from Indiahad the highest seed kernel diameters and weights as compared with other provenances. Mtakataka provenance from Malawigave the lowest seed kernel diameter and weight. Seed kernel diameters and weights were highly correlated (r = 0.7450). Honduras(Netherlands) and PKM2 gave higher collar diameters (1.89 and 1.73 cm) than other provenances. PKM3, PKM2, Hondurasand Jaffana showed higher tree heights (133.7, 131.3, 128.0 and 110 cm) than other provenances. Mangochi provenance (Malawi) gave the lowest height (35 cm). Makhanga (Malawi), Honduras, Jaffana, PKM2, PKM1 and PKM3 showed the highest field survival rates (94.7, 92.0, 90.7,84.0, 82.7 and 81.3%) as compared with other provenances. Mangochi and Domasi provenances from Malawigave the poorest field survival rates (9.33 and 22.67%). It can be concluded from these preliminary results that provenances with big kernel seeds gave high plant survival and growth rates in the field. To minimize losses of plants, however, termites must be controlled.

URL:

http://ajol.info/index.php/dai/article/view/15772/2951

 

237.

Authors:

Huang Guo-qing
Xiao Zi-jun

Title:

HG-AFS determination of selenium in Moringa oleifera

Publication:

SPECTROSCOPY ANDSPECTRAL ANALYSIS

Abstract:

The Se content in Moringa oleifera was studied by hydride generation atom fluorescence, spectrometry(HG-AFS) with wet digestion. The effects of the way of digestion, the work condition of apparatus, the reaction medium and acidity, and the reducing agent and masking agent on the determination of Se were investigated. And the operating condition of apparatus was optimized. The results showed that the detection limit of Se in this method was 0.42 ng (.) mL(-1) in the linear ranger of 0-120 ng (.) mL(-1), the relative standard deviation was 3.53% (n = 11), and the recovery of the method was 95.2%-104.6%. It was showed that the method was very sensitive, simple, rapid and accurate.

URL:

http://www.gpxygpfx.com/qikan/epaper/zhaiyao.asp?bsid=15932

 

238.

Authors:

Anwar, Farooq
Hussain, Abdullah Ijaz
Ashraf, Muhammad
Jamail, Amer
Iqbal, Shahid

Title:

Effect of salinity on yield and quality of Moringa oleifera seed oil

Publication:

GRASAS Y ACEITES

Abstract:

Variation in the yield and composition of Moringa oleifiera (M. oleifera) seed oil from two differently adopted (non-saline and saline) provinces of Pakistanwas examined. Hexane-extracted M. oleifera seeds from saline and non-saline areas contained 33.50% and 32.79% oil yield, respectively. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed no significant differences in the physical (refractive index (40 degrees C), color and specific gravity (24 degrees C) or chemical (iodine value, free fatty acid value, peroxide value, unsaponiflable matter, saponification value, conjugated diene and triene values and p-anisidine value) characteristics of the oils obtained from both areas. The concentration of C-18:1 and C-16:0 was significantly (P < 0.001) higher whereas, that of C-14:0 was lower in M. oleifera seed oils from the saline area. A tocopherol analysis demonstrated the concentration of alpha- and delta-tocopherol of Moringa seed oils to be significantly (P < 0.001) higher from the saline area. Whereas, the contents of gamma-tocopherol was found to be significantly (P < 0.001) higher in the Moringa seed oils native to the non-saline area. Results from the present study revealed that salinity did not affect the oil content of M. oleifera seeds. Nevertheless, it might affect the tocopherol and fatty acid profiles of M. oleifera seed oil.

URL:

http://scholar.google.com/scholar?cluster=8830135868414472540&hl=en&as_sdt=0,5

 

239.

Authors:

Maikokera, R.
Kwaambwa, H. M.

Title:

Interfacial properties and fluorescence of a coagulating protein extracted from Moringa oleifera seeds and its interaction with sodium dodecyl sulphate

Publication:

COLLOIDS ANDSURFACES B-BIOINTERFACES

Abstract:

The surfactant behaviour of aqueous coagulating protein extracted from Moringa oleifera seeds has been investigated by surface tension measurements. The interaction of the coagulant protein with an anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) has been monitored by surface tension and intrinsic protein fluorescence measurements. The extracted protein shows some weak surface activity at low concentrations. To achieve maximum surface activity (i.e. maximum reduction in surface tension of water), substantially higher concentrations of protein are required. The coagulant protein-SDSinteraction scheme did not exhibit the behaviour of weakly interacting polymer-surfactant systems and the SDSinteracts in a monomeric form with the protein. The association process of SDSwith the coagulant protein is supported by protein fluorescence measurements. SDShas an effect on the fluorescence of the coagulant protein indicating that the local environment of tryptophan in the protein changes as SDSconcentration below its critical micelle concentration is increased. These results have led us to the conclusions that: (1) the protein extracted from M. oleifera seeds has significant surfactant behaviour; (2) the coagulant protein interacts strongly with SDSand the protein might have specific binding sites for SDS; (3) there is formation of protein-SDScomplex.

URL:

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17207612

 

240.

Authors:

Katayon, S.
Noor, M. J. Megat Mohd
Tat, W. Kien
Halim, G. Abdul
Thamer, A. M.
Badronisa, Y.

Title:

Effect of natural coagulant application on microfiltration performance in treatment of secondary oxidation pond effluent

Publication:

DESALINATION

Abstract:

A secondary oxidation pond effluent was treated using hollow-fibre crossflow microfiltration and coagulation process. Preliminary tests were carried out to find the optimum dosage of Moringa oleifera (a natural coagulant) for the coagulation process. Optimum dosage of Moringa oleifera was recorded as 100 mg/L for turbidity of secondary oxidation pond effluents ranging between 30 and 100 NTU. Turbidity removal achieved ranged between 50 and 57%. The performance of microfiltration coupled with coagulation using optimum dosage of Moringa oleifera was investigated. Better flux performance and lower rate of fouling were achieved when combining microfiltration with coagulation. Pseudo-steady state flux of 3 L/m(2).h at a relatively constant suction pressure of less than 0.6 bar was obtained after 300 h of filtration time. Results showed that the values of COD, BOD5, alkalinity, VSS, TS, turbidity and pH in the filtrate were not influenced significantly by incorporation of coagulation using Moringa oleifera. The filtrate quality of about 50 mg/L COD, 25 mg/L BOD5, 2 mg CaCO3/L alkalinity, 1 NTU turbidity, 1 mg/L TSSand VSS respectively was produced when using microfiltration with and without coagulation.

URL:

http://www.cheric.org/research/tech/periodicals/view.php?seq=581765

 

241.

Authors:

Akhtar, Mubeena
Hasany, Syed Moosa
Bhanger, M. I.
Iqbal, Shahid

Title:

Low cost sorbents for the removal of methyl parathion pesticide from aqueous solutions

Publication:

CHEMOSPHERE

Abstract:

Sorptive potential of selected agricultural waste materials i.e. rice (Oryza sativa) bran (RB), bagasse fly ash (BFA) of sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum), Moringa oleifera pods (MOP) and rice husk (RH) for the removal of methyl parathion pesticide (MP) from surface and ground waters has been investigated. Optimization of operating parameters of sorption process, i.e. sorbent dose, agitation time, pH, initial concentration of sorbate, and temperature have been studied. The sorption data fitted to Freundlich, Langmuir and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) sorption isotherms. The maximum capacities of RB, BFA, MOP and RH for MP were calculated to be 3.6 +/- 0.8, 5.3 +/- 1.4, 5.2 +/- 1.5 and 4.7 +/- 1.0 mmol g(-1) by Freundlich, 0.39 +/- 0.009, 0.39 +/- 0.005 , 0.36 +/- 0.004 and 0.35 +/- 0.008 mmol g-1 by Langmuir and 0.9 +/- 0.08, 1.0 +/- 0.10, 1.0 +/- 0.10 and 0.9 +/- 0.07 mmol g(-1) by D-R isotherms respectively, employing 0.1 g of each sorbent, at pH 6, 90 min agitation time and at 303 K. Application of first order Lagergren and Morris-Weber equations to the kinetic data yielded correlation coefficients, close to unity. Thermodynamic parameters of sorption process, i.e. Delta H, Delta S and Delta G were computed and their negative values indicated the exothermic and spontaneous nature of sorption process. The pesticide may be stripped by sonication with methanol, making the regeneration and reutilization of sorbents promising. The sorbents investigated exhibited their potential applications in water decontamination, treatment of industrial and agricultural waste waters.

URL:

http://cat.inist.fr/?aModele=afficheN&cpsidt=18502051

 

242.

Authors:

Gupta, Richa
Dubey, D. K.
Kannan, G. M.
Flora, S. J. S.

Title:

Concomitant administration of Moringa oleifera seed powder in the remediation of arsenic-induced oxidative stress in mouse

Publication:

CELLBIOLOGY INTERNATIONAL

Abstract:

Contamination of ground water by arsenic has become a cause of global public health concern. In West Bengal, India, almost 6 million people are endemically exposed to inorganic arsenic by drinking heavily contaminated groundwater through hand-pumped tube wells. No safe, effective and specific preventive or therapeutic measures for treating arsenic poisoning are available. We recently reported that some of the herbal extracts possess properties effective in reducing arsenic concentration and in restoring some of the toxic effects of arsenic in animal models. Moringa oleifera Lamarack (English: Horseradish-tree, Drumstick-tree, Hindi: Saijan, Sanskrit: Shigru) belongs to the Moringaceae family, is generally known in the developing world as a vegetable, a medicinal plant and a source of vegetable oil.
The objective of the present study was to determine whether Moringa oleifera (M. oleifera) seed powder could restore arsenic induced oxidative stress and reduce body arsenic burden. Exposure to arsenic (2.5 mg/kg, intraperitoneally for 6 weeks) led to a significant increase in the levels of tissue reactive oxygen species (ROS), metallothionein (NIT) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) which were accompanied by a decrease in the activities in the antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in mice. Arsenic exposed mice also exhibited liver injury as reflected by reduced acid phosphatase (ACP), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities and altered heme synthesis pathway as shown by inhibited blood delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (delta-ALAD) activity.
Co-administration of M. oleifera seed powder (250 and 500 mg/kg, orally) with arsenic significantly increased the activities of SOD, catalase, GPx with elevation in reduced GSH level in tissues (liver, kidney and brain). These changes were accompanied by approximately 57%, 64% and 17% decrease in blood ROS, liver metallothionein (NIT) and lipid peroxidation respectively in animal co-administered with M. oleifera and arsenic. Another interesting observation has been the reduced uptake of arsenic in soft tissues (55% in blood, 65% in liver, 54% in kidneys and 34% in brain) following administration of M. oleifera seed powder (particularly at the dose of 500 mg/kg). It can thus be concluded from the present study that concomitant administration of M. oleifera seed powder with arsenic could significantly protect animals from oxidative stress and in reducing tissue arsenic concentration. Administration of M. oleifiera seed powder thus could also be beneficial during chelation therapy with a thiol chelator.

URL:

http://cat.inist.fr/?aModele=afficheN&cpsidt=18523993

 

243.

Authors:

Manguro, LawrenceOnyango Arot
Lemmen, Peter

Title:

Phenolics of Moringra oleifera leaves

Publication:

NATURAL PRODUCT RESEARCH

Abstract:

Five flavonol glycosides characterised as kaempferide 3-O-(2″,3″-diacetylglucoside), kaempferide 3-O-(2″-O-galloylrhamnoside), kaempferide 3-O-(2″-O-galloylrutinoside)-7-O-alpha-rhamnoside, kaempferol 3-O-[beta-glucosyl-(1 -> 2)]-[alpha-rhamnosyl-(1 -> 6)]-beta-glucoside-7-O-alpha-rhamnoside and kaempferol 3-O-[alpha-rhamnosyl-(1 -> 2)]-[alpha-rhamnosyl-(1 -> 4)]-beta-glucoside7-O-alpha-rhamnoside together with benzoic acid 4-O-beta-glucoside, benzoic acid 4-O-alpha-rhamnosyl-(1 -> 2)-beta-glucoside and benzaldehyde 4-O-beta-glucoside have been isolated from methanolic extract of Moringa oleifera leaves. Also obtained from the same extract were known compounds, kaempferol 3-O-alpha-rhamnoside, kaempferol, syringic acid, gallic acid, rutin and quercetin 3-O-beta-glucoside. Their structures were determined using spectroscopic methods as well as comparison with data from known compounds.

URL:

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17365690

 

244.

Authors:

Anwar, Farooq
Siddiq, Asma
Iqbal, Shahid
Asi, M. Rafique

Title:

Stabilization of sunflower oil with Moringa oleifera leaves under ambient storage

Publication:

JOURNAL OF FOOD LIPIDS

Abstract:

The effect of Moringa oleifera leaves on the stability of sunflower oil (SFO) was investigated. The samples of M. oleifera leaves were extracted using 80 and 100% methanol, and 80 and 100% acetone, respectively. Preliminary assessment of antioxidant activity of the extracts was carried out by the estimation of total phenolic contents (TPCs), loss of beta-carotene and percent inhibition of peroxidation in linoleic acid. The TPCof different solvent extracts of M. oleifera leaves was 5.32-8.00 g/100 g (dry mass basis). The level of inhibition of peroxidation in the linoleic acid system was 85.00-91.86%. Furthermore, preheated refined, bleached and deodorized (RBD) SFO samples were stabilized with crude extracts at a concentration of 600 ppm and subjected to ambient storage for 2 months. The progression of oxidation was followed by the measurement of peroxide value, conjugated dienes, conjugated trienes, and p-anisidine values. The overall order of antioxidant efficacy of the extracts of M. oleifera leaves, as determined by various antioxidant assays and oxidation parameters, was as follows: 80% methanolic extract, > 100% methanolic extract, > 80% acetone extract and > 100% acetone extract.

URL:

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1745-4522.2006.00069.x/full

 

245.

Authors:

Anwar, Farooq
Latif, Sajid
Ashraf, Muhammad
Gilani, Anwarul Hassan

Title:

Moringa oleifera: A food plant with multiple medicinal uses

Publication:

PHYTOTHERAPY RESEARCH

Abstract:

Moringa oleifera Lam (Moringaceae) is a highly valued plant, distributed in many countries of the tropics and subtropics. It has an impressive range of medicinal uses with high nutritional value. Different parts of this plant contain a profile of important minerals, and are a good source of protein, vitamins, beta-carotene, amino acids and various phenolics. The Moringa plant provides a rich and rare combination of zeatin, quercetin, beta-sitosterol, caffeoylquinic acid and kaempferol. In addition to its compelling water purifying powers and high nutritional value, M. oteifera is very important for its medicinal value. Various parts of this plant such as the leaves, roots, seed, bark, fruit, flowers and immature pods act as cardiac and circulatory stimulants, possess antitumor, antipyretic, antiepileptic, antiinflammatory, antiulcer, antispasmodic, diuretic, antihypertensive, cholesterol lowering, antioxidant, antidiabetic, hepatoprotective, antibacterial and antifungal activities, and are being employed for the treatment of different ailments in the indigenous system of medicine, particularly in South Asia. This review focuses on the detailed phytochemical composition, medicinal uses, along with pharmacological properties of different parts of this multipurpose tree. 

URL:

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ptr.2023/abstract

 

246.

Authors:

Katayon, S.
Ng, S. C.
Johari, M. M. N. Megat
Ghani, L. A. Abdul

Title:

Preservation of coagulation efficiency of Moringa oleitera, a natural coagulant

Publication:

BIOTECHNOLOGY ANDBIOPROCESS ENGINEERING

Abstract:

In recent years, there has been an interest to use Moringa oleifera as the natural coagulant due to cost, associated health and environmental concerns of synthetic organic polymers and inorganic chemicals. However, it is known that M. oleifera as the natural coagulant is highly biodegradable and has a very short shelf life. This research was carried out to investigate the effects of storage temperature, packaging methods, and freeze-drying on the preservation of M. oleifera seeds powders. Non freeze-dried M. oleifera was prepared into different packaging namely open container, closed container and vacuum packing, whilst, freeze-dried M. oleifera was stored in closed container and vacuum packing. Each of the packaging was stored at room temperature (30 to 32 degrees C) and refrigerator (4 degrees C). The turbidity removal efficiencies of stored M. oleifera were examined using jar test at monthly interval for 12 months. The results indicated that non freeze-dried M. oleifera kept in the refrigerator (4 degrees C) would preserve its coagulation efficiency. In addition, closed container and vacuum packing were found to be more appropriate for the preservation of non freeze-dried M. oleifera, compared to open container. Freeze-dried M. oleifera retained its high coagulation efficiency regardless the storage temperature and packaging method for up to 11 months. Besides, higher increment in zeta potential values for water coagulated with freeze-dried M. oleifera indicated the higher frequency of charge neutralization and better coagulation efficiency of freeze-dried M. oleifera, compared to non freeze-dried seeds. As a coagulant, M. oleifera did not affect the pH of the water after treatment.

URL:

http://cat.inist.fr/?aModele=afficheN&cpsidt=21321987

247.

Authors:

Dongmeza, Euloge
Siddhuraju, Perumal
Francis, George
Becker, Klaus

Title:

Effects of dehydrated methanol extracts of moringa (Moringa oleifera Lam.) leaves and three of its fractions on growth performance and feed nutrient assimilation in Niletilapia (Oreochromis niloticus (L.))

Publication:

AQUACULTURE

Abstract:

A 10-week feeding trial was conducted in a recirculation system at (27 +/- 0.5 degrees C) to determine the effect of a methanol extract of moringa leaf meal and its different fractions. Nine isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets containing 35% crude protein and 20 MJ kg(-1) gross energy were used. All the experimental diets contained the same amount of fish meal. The inclusion of moringa methanol extract or of moringa extract fractions occurred by replacing the wheat meal. These diets were then denoted as diets 1 (control without any moringa product), 2, 3 (containing respectively 10.6 and 17.7% of moringa leaf meal methanol extract), 4, 5 (containing respectively 9.3 and 15.4% of a tannin-reduced fraction), 6, 7 (containing respectively 2.6 and 4.3% of a saponin-enriched fraction), 8 and 9 (containing respectively 7 and 11.6% of a tannin- and saponin-reduced fraction). Thirty six fish (four fish per treatment), with mean initial body mass of 4.9-5.2 g, were kept individually. They were fed the experimental diets at the rate of 15 g feed per kg metabolic body weight (kg(0.8)) per day. Up to the 5th experimental week, no difference in growth performance was observed between all the groups. At the end of the experiment, a significant (P < 0.05) reduction of the growth performance of all the fish fed diets containing moringa 80% methanol extract or the extract fractions was generally observed when they were compared to the fish fed with the control diet. The whole body moisture, ash and crude protein of the fish fed diets containing moringa crude extract or extract fractions were not significantly different to those of the control group. Body lipid was significantly reduced for the fish fed the diets 2, 4, 5 and 9 when compared to control. Muscle and plasma cholesterol levels were generally reduced for the fish fed diets containing moringa, extract and extract fractions (except for the group 5 which showed higher muscle cholesterol than that of the control). The fish in the groups 2 and 5 had significantly lower hepatosomatic indices when compared to control. On the other hand, the intestinalsomatic indices (ISI) of the groups 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7 were generally higher than the control group and the groups 8 and 9 had lower ISI than the control group. The relatively high total phenolics and saponins in diets 2 to 9 may have contributed to the poorer growth performance in these groups.

URL:

No url

 

248.

Authors:

Bhatia, Subhash
Othman, Zalina
Ahmad, Abdul L.

Title:

Palm oil mill effluent pretreatment using Moringa oleifera seeds as an environmentally friendly coagulant: laboratory and pilot plant studies

Publication:

JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY ANDBIOTECHNOLOGY

Abstract:

This research paper covers the suitability of the coagulation-flocculation process using Moringa oleifera seeds after oil extraction as a natural and environmentally friendly coagulant for palm oil mill effluent treatment. The performance of M. oleifera coagulant was studied along with the flocculant KP 9650 in removal of suspended solids, organic components and in increasing the floc size. The optimum values of the operating parameters obtained from the laboratory jar test were applied in a pilot-scale treatment plant comprised of coagulation-flocculation and filtration processes. Pilot-scale pretreatment resulted in 99.7% suspended solids removal, 71.5% COD reduction, 68.2% BOD reduction, 100% oil and grease removal and 91% TKN removal. In pilot plant pretreatment, the percentage recovery of water was 83.3%, and 99.7% sludge was recovered after dewatering in a filter press.

URL:

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/jctb.1619/abstract

 

249.

Authors:

Nadeem, Muhammad
Mahmood, A.
Shahid, S. A.
Shah, S. S.
Khalid, A. M.
McKay, G.

Title:

Sorption of lead from aqueous solution by chemically modified carbon adsorbents

Publication:

JOURNAL OF HAZARDOUS MATERIALS

Abstract:

An indigenously prepared, steam activated and chemically modified carbon from husk and pods of Moringa oleifera (M. oleifera), an agricultural waste, was comparatively examined as an adsorbent for the removal of lead from aqueous solutions. Studies were conducted as a function of contact time, initial metal concentration, dose of adsorbent, agitation speed, particle size and pH. Maximum uptake capacities were found to be, 98.89, 96.58, 91.8, 88.63, 79.43% for cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB), phosphoric, sulfuric, hydrochloric acid treated and untreated carbon adsorbents, respectively. Bangham, pseudo-first- and second-order, intra-particle diffusion equations were implemented to express the sorption mechanism by utilized adsorbents. Adsorption rate of lead ions was found to be considerably faster for chemically modified adsorbents than unmodified. The results of adsorption were fitted to both the Langmuir and Freundlich models. Satisfactory agreement between the metal uptake capacities by the adsorbents at different time intervals was expressed by the correlation coefficient (R-2). The Langmuir model represented the sorption process better than the Freundlich one, with R-2 values ranging from 0.994 to 0.998.

URL:

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16839677

 

250.

Authors:

Liu, Yeting
Perera, Conrad O.
Suresh, Valiyaveettil

Title:

Comparison of three chosen vegetables with others from South East Asiafor their lutein and zeaxanthin content

Publication:

FOOD CHEMISTRY

Abstract:

Three local leafy vegetables chekup manis (Sauropus androgynus), West Indian pea tree leaves (Sesbania grandiflora (L.) Pers.), and drumstick tree leaves (Moringa oleifera), are consumed by local South East Asian populations and are believed to have beneficial effects on improved vision and prevention of eye diseases. High performance liquid chromatography equipped with photodiode array detection was used to investigate their lutein and zeaxanthin contents, which were compared with those from other commonly found vegetables in the region. It was found that these three leafy vegetables contained significantly higher amounts of lutein namely, 19.5, 28.3, and 24.8 mg/100 g edible fresh leaves, respectively, compared to other vegetables in the region. It was also found that cooking in boiling water increase the extractable lutein content in chekup manis by almost 20%, within 4 min.

URL:

http://www.fstadirect.com/GetRecord.aspx?AN=2006-12-Jq4748

 

251.

Authors:

Lako, Jimaima
Trenerry, V. Craige
Wahlqvist, Mark
Wattanapenpaiboon, Naiyana
Sotheeswaran, Subramanium
Premier, Robert

Title:

Phytochemical flavonols, carotenoids and the antioxidant properties of a wide selection of Fijian fruit, vegetables and other readily available foods

Publication:

FOOD CHEMISTRY

Abstract:

Frequent consumption of fruits and vegetables is associated with a lowered risk of cancer, heart disease, hypertension and stroke. This has been attributed to the presence of various forms of phytochemicals and antioxidants present in the foods, e.g. carotenoids and polyphenol compounds including flavonoids and anthocyanins. Seventy Fiji grown fruits and vegetables, and some other commonly consumed products, were analysed for their total antioxidant capacity (TAC), total polyphenol content (TPP), total anthocyanin content (TAT) as well as the major flavonol and carotenoid profiles. These data will be used to estimate the phytochemical and antioxidant intake of the Fijian population and will be a useful tool in future clinical trials.
Green leafy vegetables had the highest antioxidant capacity, followed by the fruits and root crops. A number of herbs also exhibited high antioxidant capacity. Ipomoea batatas (sweet potato) leaves have the highest TAC (650 mg/100 g) and are rich in TPP (270 mg/100 g), quercetin (90 mg/100 g) and P-carotene (13 mg/100 g). Moringa oleifera (drumstick) leaves also have a high TAC (260 mg/100 g) and are rich in TPP (260 mg/100 g), quercetin (100 mg/100 g), kaempferol (34 mg/100 g) and P-carotene (34 mg/100 g). Curcuma longa (turmeric ginger) has a high TAC (360 mg/100 g), TPP (320 mg/100 g) and is rich in fisetin (64 mg/100 g), quercetin (41 mg/100 g) and myricetin (17 mg/100 g). Zingiber officinate (white ginger) also has a high TAC (320 mg/100 g) and TPP (200 mg/100 g). Zingiber zerumbet (wild ginger), a widely used herb taken before meals is the richest source of kaempferol (240 mg/100 g).

URL:

http://www.fstadirect.com/GetRecord.aspx?AN=2006-12-Ja4756

 

252.

Authors:

Sharma, Partil
Kumari, Pushpa
Srivastava, M. M.
Srivastava, Shalini

Title:

Ternary biosorption studies of Cd(II), Cr(III) and Ni(II) on shelled Moringa oleifera seeds

Publication:

BIORESOURCE TECHNOLOGY

Abstract:

Competitive biosorption of Cd(II), Cr(III) and Ni(II) on unmodified shelled Moringa oleifera seeds (SMOS) present in ternary mixture were compared with the single metal solution. The extent of adsorption capacity of the ternary metal ions tested on unmodified SMOS was low (10-20%) as compared to single metal ions. SMOS removed the target metal ions in the selectivity order of Cd(II) > Cr(III) > Ni(II). Sorption equilibria, calculated from adsorption data, explained favorable performance of biosorption system. Regeneration of exhausted biomass was also attempted for several cycles with a view to restore the sorbent to its original state.

URL:

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16459076

 

253.

Authors:

Anwar, Farooq
Zafar, Syeda Nahid
Rashid, Umer

Title:

Characterization of Moringa oleifera seed oil from drought and irrigated regions of Punjab, Pakistan

Publication:

GRASAS Y ACEITES

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to investigate the composition of M.oleifra seed oil from drought and irrigated regions of Fakistan. The hexane-extraded oil content of M. oleifera seeds harvested from one drought (Layyah) and two irrigated regions (Rahim Yar Khan, Jhang) of Puniab, Pakistan was found to be 30.36 and 35.26, 38.37% respectively. Results of physical and chemical carametres of the extracted oils were as follows: iodine value, 65.86 and 70.50, 67.86; refractiveindex (40 degrees C), 1.4570 and 1.4582, 1.4581; density (24 degrees C), 0.9509 and 0.9069, 0.9002 mg mL(-1); saponification value, 181.1 and 183.7,183.1; unsaponifaiable matter, 0.84 and 0.85, 0.97%; acidity (as oleic acid) 0.28 and 0.35, 0.33%.
The induction period (Rancimat 20L/h, 120 degrees C) af the M.oleifera from the drought region was significaritty higher (9.63 h) as compared with those of irrigated regions (8.74, 8.33, h). Specific extinctions at 232 and 270 nm were 1.92 and 1.98, 1.68; 1.02 and 0.97, 0.75 respectively. The overall contents of tocopherols (alpha, gamma and delta), which did not differ significantly in the Morniga oils from both regions ranged from 95.35-103.80, 80.26-36.56 and 55.75-64.55 mg kg(-1) respectively. Fatty acid profiles of the M.oleifera oils from drought and irrigated regions of Punjab consisted in a high level of oleic acid (up to 72.38 and 75.55, 74.66 %) followed by palmitic and behenic acid (up to 0.26 and 8.76, 9.20 and 5.46 and 3.72, 4.53 %) respectively. Results of various physical and chemical parameters of the investigated M.oleifera seed oils revealed that drought is one of the most visible factors that have amplified the induction period and C22:0 content of the oils and reduced seed weight, oil yield, iodine value and C18:1 content.

URL:

http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=abstract&id=278222

 

254.

Authors:

Chuang, Ping-Hsien
Lee, Chi-Wei
Chou, Jia-Ying
Murugan, M.
Shieh, Bor-Jinn
Chen, Hueih-Min

Title:

Anti-fungal activity of crude extracts and essential oil of Moringa oleifera Lam

Publication:

BIORESOURCE TECHNOLOGY

Abstract:

Investigations were carried out to evaluate the therapeutic properties of the seeds and leaves of Moringa oleifera Lam as herbal medicines. Ethanol extracts showed anti-fungal activities in vitro against dermatophytes such as Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Epidermophyton floccosum, and Microsporum canis. GC-MS analysis of the chemical composition of the essential oil from leaves showed a total of 44 compounds. Isolated extracts could be of use for the future development of anti-skin disease agents.

URL:

http://www.moringanews.org/documents/antifungal.pdf

 

255.

Authors:

Arabshahi-D, Saeedeh
Devi, D. Vishalakshi
Urooj, Asna

Title:

Evaluation of antioxidant activity of some plant extracts and their heat, pH and storage stability

Publication:

FOOD CHEMISTRY

Abstract:

In the present study, three plant foods, namely, drumstick leaves (Moringa oleifera), mint leaves (Mentha spicata) and carrot tuber (Daucus carota) were extracted with ethanol and analyzed for their antioxidant activity. The antioxidant activity of extracts was evaluated according to the amount of malonaldehyde (MDA) formed by the FeSO4-induced oxidation of linoleic acid and a high PUFA oil (sunflower oil) at 37 degrees C in Trizma-buffer (pH 7.4). At a concentration of 1.5 mg/ml of linoleic acid the extracts from drumstick and carrot had a higher antioxidant activity (83% and 80%) than alpha-tocopherol (72%). In sunflower oil, the extracts from drumstick leaves and mint leaves were found to exhibit a similar activity (46% and 44%). The extract from drumstick exhibited the highest activity in both lipid systems. In addition, the stability of extracts to pH (4 and 9) and temperature (100 degrees C, 15 min) was investigated. The antioxidant activity of the extracts from mint leaves and carrot was higher at pH 9 than pH 4, while that of drumstick extract remained the same under both pH conditions. The extract from carrot was more heat-stable than other extracts. The three extracts stored in the dark at 5 and 25 degrees C after a 15 day period did not show any significant change (p <= 0.05) in their antioxidant activity. These data indicate that selected plant extracts are potential sources of dietary antioxidants.

URL:

http://www.fstadirect.com/GetRecord.aspx?AN=2006-10-Jh3764

 

256.

Authors:

Lalas, Stavros
Gortzi, Olga
Tsaknis, John

Title:

Frying stability of Moringa stenopetala seed oil

Publication:

PLANT FOODS FOR HUMAN NUTRITION

Abstract:

The frying performance of Moringa stenopetala seed oil (extracted with cold press or n-hexane) was studied especially as regards repeated frying operations. The oils were used for intermittent frying of potato slices and cod filets at a temperature of 175 degrees C for 5 consecutive days (5 fryings per day). The chemical changes occurring in oils were evaluated. Free fatty acid content, polar compounds, colour and viscosity of the oils all increased, whereas the iodine value, smoke point, polyunsaturated fatty acid content, induction period and tocopherol content decreased. The effect of the oil on the organoleptic quality of these fried foods and the theoretical number of frying operations possible before having to discard the oil was also determined. The analytical and sensory data showed that the lowest deterioration occurred in cold press produced oil.

URL:

http://www.springerlink.com/content/j7u40238313mn820/

 

257.

Authors:

Adandonon, A.
Aveling, T. A. S.
Labuschagne, N.
Tamo, M.

Title:

Biocontrol agents in combination with Moringa oleifera extract for integrated control of Sclerotium-caused cowpea damping-off and stem rot

Publication:

EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF PLANT PATHOLOGY

Abstract:

Damping-off and stem rot disease-causing Sclerotium rolfsii has been reported as a destructive soil-borne pathogen of numerous crops, especially in the tropics and subtropics. Trials were conducted to test the efficacy of biocontrol agents alone or combined with Moringa oleifera leaf extracts for the control of the disease. In the laboratory, PDAwas amended with Moringa leaf extract, and mycelial growth of S. rolfsii was measured. In the greenhouse and field, Trichoderma Kd 63, Trichoderma IITA 508 and Bacillus subtilis were evaluated as seed treatments, soil drench or sprinkle, separately or combined with Moringa leaf extracts. Percentage disease incidence, severity and control were recorded. In the laboratory, the higher the extract concentration the less the mycelial growth and no mycelial growth occurred on extract at 15 or 20 g leaves 10 ml(-1)water. In the greenhouse, the highest disease control was observed at a Moringa extract concentration of 15 kg leaves 10 l(-1) water (w/v). Seed treatments using Trichoderma Kd 63, and soil sprinkle using Trichoderma IITA 508 had a significantly (P = 0.05) higher effect on a disease incidence than Bacillus. Disease severity followed the same pattern. Moringa seed treatment combined with Trichoderma soil sprinkle resulted in significantly more than 94% and 70% disease control in the greenhouse and field, respectively, with significant yield increase in the field. This is the first report of Moringa leaf extract combined with Trichoderma as an integrated control for Sclerotium damping-off and stem rot of cowpea in the field.

URL:

http://www.springerlink.com/content/7814750734431vk8/

 

258.

Authors:

Iqbal, Shahid
Bhanger, M. I.

Title:

Effect of season and production location on antioxidant activity of Moringa oleifera leaves grown in Pakistan

Publication:

JOURNAL OF FOOD COMPOSITION ANDANALYSIS

Abstract:

Antioxidant activity (AA) of methanolic extracts from Moringa oleifera leaves, as function of seasons and agroclimatic locations, was investigated. Total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), ascorbic acid (AAcid) content, reducing power, AA in linoleic acid system and scavenging power of superoxide anion radical were taken as parameters for evaluation of AA. Significant differences were observed in the AA of the extracts from different locations and seasons. Generally, samples from Mardaan exhibited highest AA followed by Balakot, Chakwal, Jamshoro, and Nawabshah. Overall antioxidant efficacy was greater in December or March depending upon location, and least in June. Antioxidant potential of M. oleifera leaves from Pakistanwas quite comparable or higher than literature values for M. oleifera from other countries and some other potent antioxidants. This work shows that season and agroclimatic locations have profound effect on the AA of M. oleifera leaves.

URL:

http://www.fstadirect.com/GetRecord.aspx?AN=2006-09-Jq3263

 

259.

Authors:

Kidmose, U.
Yang, R. -Y.
Thilsted, S. H.
Christensen, L. P.
Brandt, K.

Title:

Content of carotenoids in commonly consumed Asian vegetables and stability and extractability during frying

Publication:

JOURNAL OF FOOD COMPOSITION ANDANALYSIS

Abstract:

In order to investigate the variation in beta-carotene and vitamin A in commonly consumed vegetables in Asia, different leafy vegetables were analyzed. The mean beta-carotene content varied between 16 and 6630 mu g/100g fresh weight (FW) with the highest content in drumstick leaves and the lowest content in common cabbage and Garland chrysanthemum leaves. In six tuber and fruit vegetables, the mean beta-carotene content varied between 311 and 15,400 mu g/100g FW with the highest content in a chili pepper variety. Vitamin A activity varied significantly between the investigated vegetables (1-1280 mu g retinol activity equivalents (RAE)/100g FW). The retention of beta-carotene and formation of cis-isomers were investigated in selected vegetables during stir-frying. Retentions of all-trans-beta-carotene varied between 73% and 98% in sweet bell pepper, sweet potato and tomato that were fried for 1/2-3 min. In sweet potato, 13-cis-beta-carotene was the major cis-isomer of beta-carotene, while only minor amounts of 15-cis- and 9-cis-beta-carotene were formed. The total amount of cis-isomers of beta-carotene formed during frying depended on the frying time and the size with the highest amount in cubes, that were fried for 3min (1070 mu g 13-cis-beta-carotene/100g FW). In leafy vegetables, only 13-cis-beta-carotene was detected during frying. Extraction of beta-carotene into the frying oil was only observed in low amounts after 3 min frying of sweet potato shreds

URL:

http://cat.inist.fr/?aModele=afficheN&cpsidt=17954269

 

260.

Authors:

Katayon, S
Noor, MJMM
Asma, M
Ghani, LAA
Thamer, AM
Azni, I
Ahmad, J
Khor, BC
Suleyman, AM

Title:

Effects of storage conditions of Moringa oleifera seeds on its performance in coagulation

Publication:

BIORESOURCE TECHNOLOGY

Abstract:

Moringa oleifera is a plant whose seeds have coagulation properties for treating water and wastewater. In this study the coagulation efficiency of Moringa oleifera kept in different storage conditions were studied. The Moringa oleifera seeds were stored at different conditions and durations; open container and closed container at room temperature (28 degrees C) and refrigerator (3 degrees C) for durations of 1, 3 and 5 months. Comparison between turbidity removal efficiency of Moringa oleifera kept in refrigerator and room temperature revealed that there was no significant difference between them. The Moringa oleifera kept in refrigerator and room temperature for one month showed higher turbidity removal efficiency, compared to those kept for 3 and 5 months, at both containers. The coagulation efficiency of Moringa oleifera was found to be dependent on initial turbidity of water samples. Highest turbidity removals were obtained for water with very high initial turbidity. In summary coagulation efficiency of Moringa oleifera was found independent of storage temperature and container, however coagulation efficiency of Moringa oleifera decreased as storage duration increased. In addition, Moringa oleifera can be used as a potential coagulant especially for very high turbidity water.

URL:

http://md1.csa.com/partners/viewrecord.php?requester=gs&collection=ENV&recid=6860404&q=&uid=790284667&setcookie=yes

261.

Authors:

Sanchez, NR
Sporndly, E
Ledin, I

Title:

Effect of feeding different levels of foliage of Moringa oleifera to creole dairy cows on intake, digestibility, milk production and composition

Publication:

LIVESTOCK SCIENCE

Abstract:

An experiment was conducted in Nicaraguato determine the effect of feeding different levels of foliage from Moringa oleifera Lam (synonym: Moringa pterygosperma Gaertner) to dairy cows on intake, digestibility, milk production and milk composition. The treatments were: Brachiaria brizantha hay ad libitum, either unsupplemented or supplemented with 2 kg or 3 kg of Moringa on a dry matter (DM) basis. Six Bos indicus cows of the Creole Reyna breed, with a mean body weight of 394 +/- 24 kg were used in a replicated 3 x 3 Latin square design. Supplementation with Moringa increased (P < 0.05) DM intake from 8.5 to 10.2 and 11.0 kg DM day(-1) and milk production from 3.1 to 4.9 and 5.1 kg day(-1) for B. brizantha hay only and supplementation with 2 kg and 3 kg DM of Moringa, respectively. Milk fat, total solids and crude protein and organoleptic characteristics, smell, taste and colour, were not significantly different between the diets. Apparent digestibility coefficients of DM, OM, CP, NDF and ADF increased (P < 0.05) in the diets supplemented with Moringa compared with B. brizantha hay alone. The results showed that the inclusion of Moringa as a protein supplement to low quality diets improved DM intake and digestibility of the diet and increased milk production but did not affect milk composition.

URL:

http://www.livestockscience.com/article/S0301-6226(05)00383-0/abstract

 

262.

Authors:

Abdulkarim, SM
Lai, OM
Muhammad, SKS
Long, K
Ghazali, HM

Title:

Use of enzymes to enhance oil recovery during aqueous extraction of Moringa oleifera seed oil

Publication:

JOURNAL OF FOOD LIPIDS

Abstract:

Moringa oleifera seed oil was extracted using four different types of enzymes to obtain the most efficient extraction parameters. The enzymes used were Neutrase 0.8L (neutral protease), Termamyl 120L, type L (alpha-amylase), Pectinex Ultra SP-L (pectinase) and Celluclast 1.5L FG (cellulase). These were used either separately or in combination. Individually, Neutrase was found to be the most effective, followed by Termamyl, Celluclast and Pectinex. A combination of the four enzymes was found to be more effective than used separately, with 74% oil recovery. Percent oil recovery for individual enzymes under optimal conditions and with pH adjusted to the individual enzyme’s optimum pH were 71.9, 64.8, 62.6 and 56.5 for Neutrase, Termamyl, Celluclast and Pectinex, respectively. Neutrase, Pectinex and the combination of all the four enzymes at 2% (v/w) were found to perform best at 45C, while Termamyl and Celluclast were best at 60C. The physical and chemical properties of the extracted oils such as iodine value (IV) (66.0-67.2 g iodine/100 g oil), free fatty acid (FFA) content (1.13-1.25 as % oleic acid), complete melting points (MPs) (18.6-19.1C) and viscosities (83.1-85.0 cP) except the color were not significantly affected (P > 0.05) by the type of enzyme used in the pretreatment of the seed. However, apart from IV and MP, the values for other properties were significantly different (P < 0.05) from those obtained for solvent-extracted samples.

URL:

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1745-4522.2006.00038.x/full

 

263.

Authors:

Karadi, RV
Gadge, NB
Alagawadi, KR
Savadi, RV

Title:

Effect of Moringa oleifera Lam. root-wood on ethylene glycol induced urolithiasis in rats

Publication:

JOURNAL OF ETHNOPHARMACOLOGY

Abstract:

In India, drumstick (Moringa oleifera Lam. (Moringaceae)) is commonly used as a phytotherapeutic agent. The effect of oral administration of aqueous and alcoholic extract of Moringa oleifera root-wood on calcium oxalate urolithiasis has been studied in male Wistar albino rats. Ethylene glycol feeding resulted in hyperoxaluria as well as increased renal excretion of calcium and phosphate. Supplementation with aqueous and alcoholic extract of Moringa oleifera root-wood significantly reduced the elevated urinary oxalate, showing a regulatory action on endogenous oxalate synthesis. The increased deposition of stone forming constituents in the kidneys of calculogenic rats was also significantly lowered by curative and preventive treatment using aqueous and alcoholic extracts. The results indicate that the root-wood of Moringa oleifera is endowed with antiurolithiatic activity.

URL:

http://cat.inist.fr/?aModele=afficheN&cpsidt=17691800

 

264.

Authors:

Yang, RY
Tsou, SCS
Lee, TC
Chang, LC
Kuo, G
Lai, PY

Title:

Moringa, a novel plant rich in antioxidants, bioavailable iron, and nutrients

Publication:

HERBS: CHALLENGES IN CHEMISTRY ANDBIOLOGY

Abstract:

A strong food-based approach is critical to alleviate nutritional deficiencies in the tropics. Our survey of over 120 species of Asian indigenous vegetables for nutrient contents, antioxidant activities (AOA), and indigenous knowledge of their medicinal uses indicated that Moringa oleifera was among the most promising species. We conducted additional studies to evaluate four Moringa species for AOA, antioxidant contents and nutritional quality, and to investigate M. oleifera’s AOA and iron as affected by freezing, boiling, and in vitro digestion. We concluded that the four Moringa species are high in AOA, antioxidant and nutrient contents, low in oxalate content. Boiling in water enhanced aqueous AOA, and the AOA was maintained after simulated digestion. Cooking Moringa increased available iron and raised total available iron of mixtures with mungbean. Moringa, an easily grown perennial, have tremendous potential to improve diets and health.

URL:

http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/bk-2006-0925.ch017

265.

Authors:

Ghebremichael, KA
Gunaratna, KR
Dalhammar, G

Title:

Single-step ion exchange purification of the coagulant protein from Moringa oleifera seed

Publication:

APPLIED MICROBIOLOGY ANDBIOTECHNOLOGY

Abstract:

The coagulant protein from Moringa oleifera (MO) seed was purified using a single-step batch ion exchange (IEX) method. Adsorption and elution parameters were optimized. Impact of the purification on the reduction of organic and nutrient release to the water was studied. The matrix was equilibrated using ammonium acetate buffer, and the optimum ionic strength of NaCl for elution was 0.6 M. The time for adsorption equilibrium was between 90 and 120 min. Maximum adsorption capacity of the matrix, estimated with the Langmuir model, was 68 mg protein/g adsorbent. The purified protein does not release organic and nutrient loads to the water, which are the main concerns of the crude extract. This work suggests that a readily scalable single-step IEXpurification method can be used to produce the coagulant protein and it can be carried out with locally available facilities. This will promote the use of MO in large water treatment plants and other industries.

URL:

http://www.springerlink.com/content/363581925124v35g/

266.

Authors:

Zhang, JD
Zhang, F
Luo, YH
Yang, H

Title:

A preliminary study on cactus as coagulant in water treatment

Publication:

PROCESS BIOCHEMISTRY

Abstract:

The coagulation performance of cactus to act as natural macromolecular coagulant was studied by the jar test. The cactus coagulation attained comparatively high turbidity removal efficiency, and water with turbidity less than 5NTU could be obtained with initial turbidities from 20 to 200. When used to treat the same water sample, the optimum dosage of cactus coagulant was found similar to that of AlCl3 center dot 6H(2)O. Effects of factors such as pH, temperature, alkalinity on cactus coagulation were also studied. High removal efficiency of turbidity and COD could be obtained when cactus solids were used to treat sewage water, potable water source (taken from Changjiang, Wuhan) and high turbidity seawater. When cactus was used with AlCl3 center dot 6H(2)O synchronously to treat sewage water, the removal efficiency of turbidity and COD were higher than that of cactus or AlCl3 center dot 6H(2)O was used solely.

URL:

http://cat.inist.fr/?aModele=afficheN&cpsidt=17547346

 

267.

Authors:

Sanchez, NR
Ledin, S
Ledin, I

Title:

Biomass production and chemical composition of Moringa oleifera under different management regimes in Nicaragua

Publication:

AGROFORESTRY SYSTEMS

Abstract:

The effects of different planting densities (250,000, 500,000 and 750,000 plants ha(-1)) and cutting frequencies (45, 60 and 75 days) on the biomass production and chemical composition of Moringa oleifera was studied in a completely randomised split plot design with four blocks, in Managua, Nicaragua, located geographically at 12 degrees 08’15” N and 86 degrees 09’36”E. The 75 day cutting frequency produced the highest fresh matter yield, 100.7 and 57.4 Mg ha(-1) year(-1), and dry matter (DM) yield, 24.7 and 10.4 Mg ha(-1) yea(-1), during the first and second year, respectively. All planting densities produced the highest DM yield at 75 day cutting frequency. In the first year, the density of 750,000 plants ha(-1) produced the highest fresh matter yield, 88.0 Mg ha(-1) and highest DM yield, 18.9 Mg ha(-1), but in the second year the density of 500,000 plants ha(-1) gave the highest yields, 46.2 Mg ha(-1) and 8.1 Mg ha(-1), respectively. During the first year, DM (22.8%), neutral detergent fibre (NDF) (30.8%) and ash (9.14%) contents were highest and in vitro DM digestibility (IVDMD) (68.2%) was lowest in the longest cutting interval, while contents of crude protein (CP) (22.8%) and acid detergent fibre (ADF) (22.8%) were not affected significantly by cutting frequency. In the second year, DM and CP contents and IVDMD were not significantly affected by cutting frequency, whereas NDF, ADF and ash contents were lowest in the 60 day cutting frequency. Planting density had no significant effect on chemical composition or IVDMD. These data suggest that Moringa forage could be an interesting protein supplement for ruminants.

URL:

http://www.springerlink.com/content/x43274582447210k/

 

268.

Authors:

Ndemanisho, EE
Kimoro, BN
Mtengeti, EJ
Muhikambele, VRM

Title:

The potential of Albizia lebbeck as a supplementary feed for goats in tanzania

Publication:

AGROFORESTRY SYSTEMS

Abstract:

Forty growing goats (20 males and 20 females) were used in a 90-day growth and intake study to evaluate the potential of Albizia lebbeck (ABC) based concentrate as compared with Gliricidia sepium (GBC), Leucaena leucocephala (LBC), and Moringa oleifera (MBC) based concentrates with cotton seed cake (CSC) as a control. The animals were fed a basal diet of maize stover and supplemented daily with 30 g/kg W-0.75 of ABC, GBC, LBC, MBC, and CSC. They were compounded so as to formulate iso-protein diets. Treatment effects were significant (p < 0.05) for growth rates in that with the exception of GBC, goats on CSCexhibited significantly higher gains compared to counterparts in other treatments. The total DM intake was between 50.6 and 52.6 g/kg W-0.75/day and there were no significant (p > 0.05) differences among treatments. There were significant differences (p < 0.05) among treatments for maize stover intake. CSCbased treatment showed the highest intake with insignificant (p > 0.05) differences amongst the leaf meal based concentrates. It can be concluded that Albizia lebbeck had similar potential to the other leaf meal based supplements studied but had lower potential compared to a cotton seed cake based supplement, as protein sources for growing goats fed a poor quality basal diet.

URL:

http://www.springerlink.com/content/q78726w71g657685/

 

269.

Authors:

Kumari, P
Sharma, P
Srivastava, S
Srivastava, MM

Title:

Biosorption studies on shelled Moringa oleifera Lamarck seed powder: Removal and recovery of arsenic from aqueous system

Publication:

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MINERAL PROCESSING

Abstract:

The present study explores the unexploited sorption property of the shelled Moringa oleifera seeds (SMOS) for decontamination of arsenic from water bodies. Sorption studies (batch experiments) result into the standardization of optimum conditions for removal of 60.21% As(III) and 85.60% As(V) as follows: biomass dosage (2.0 g), metal concentration (25 mg/L), contact time (60 min) and volume of the test solution (200 ml) at pH 7.5 and 2.5, respectively. The adsorption data are fitted with Langmuir isotherm. Surface area has been measured using BET surface area analyzer. Morphological changes observed in scanning electron micrograph of native and treated SMOS indicates the existence of biosorption process. Fourier transform infrared spectrometry of exhausted seed biomass highlights protein/amino acid-arsenic interactions responsible for sorption phenomenon. Regeneration has also been attempted for several cycles with a view to restore the sorbent to its original state. The sorption capacity of the regenerated biomass remained almost constant after three cycles of sorption process, suggesting that the lifetime cycle was sufficient for continuous application. The findings open up new avenues in the decontamination of arsenic using SMOS from arsenic contaminated water, as domestic and environment-friendly safe technology.

URL:

http://scholar.google.com/scholar?cluster=2415862024601959629&hl=en&as_sdt=0,5

 

270.

Authors:

Sanchez-Machado, DI
Lopez-Cervantes, J
Vazquez, NJR

Title:

High-performance liquid chromatography method to measure alpha- and gamma-tocopherol in leaves, flowers and fresh beans from Moringa oleifera

Publication:

JOURNAL OF CHROMATOGRAPHY A

Abstract:

A high-performance liquid chromatography method for the microscale determination of alpha- and gamma-tocopherol in leaves, flowers and fresh beans from Moringa oleifera is reported. The method includes microscale saponification and extraction with n-hexane. Optimized conditions for reversed-phase HPLC with UV detection were as follows: colunm, 25 cm x 0.46 cm, Exil ODS 5-mu m; column temperature, 25 degrees C; mobile phase, a 20:80 (v/v) mixture of methanol: acetonitrile; flow rate, 1.0 ml/min. With these conditions, method precision (relative standard deviation) was 5.6% for alpha-tocopherol and 4.9% for gamma-tocopherol. We used this method to measure alpha- and gamma-tocopherol in samples from M. oleifera as part of nutritional studies in edible plants cultivated in the Northwest Mexico.

URL:

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16439255

 

271.

Authors:

Kumari, P
Sharma, P
Srivastava, S
Srivastava, MM

Title:

Arsenic removal from the aqueous system using plant biomass: a bioremedial approach

Publication:

JOURNAL OF INDUSTRIAL MICROBIOLOGY & BIOTECHNOLOGY

Abstract:

Metal species released into the environment by technological activities tend to persist indefinitely, circulating and eventually accumulating throughout the food chain, thus becoming a serious threat to the environment. Environment pollution by toxic metals occurs globally through military, industrial, and agricultural processes and waste disposal. Bioremediation processes are the target of recent research and are considered low-cost, ecofriendly methods to alleviate the current problems of water decontamination, particularly for remote and rural areas. The present piece of work reports the unexploited sorption properties of the powdered seed of the plant Moringa oleifera (SMOS) for the removal of Arsenic [As(III) and As(V)] from aqueous solutions. Sorption studies, using standard practices, result in the standardization of optimum conditions such as biomass dosages (2.0 g), metal concentrations (25 ppm), contact time (60 min) and volume of the test solutions (200 ml) at pH 7.5, for As(III) and pH 2.5 for As(V). Maximum sorption for As(III) and As(V) species is 60.21 and 85.6%, respectively. Protein/Amino acid-Arsenic interactions are found to play an important role in the biosorption process using plant biomass SMOS.

URL:

http://www.springerlink.com/content/335l411131301206/

 

272.

Authors:

Sanchez-Martin, J.

Beltran-Heredia, J.

Title:

Sufactant-polluted surface water treatment with Moringa

Publication:

Universidad de Extremadura, Department of Chemical Engineering and Physical Chemistry, Avda. de

Abstract:

Moringa Oleifera seed extract has been tested in removing surfactants frompolluted surface water. River water has been polluted with sodium lauryl sulphate, a spread surfactant, and Jar-test have been carried out in order to evaluate the efficiency of this natural coagulant agent inside a real surface water matrix. Efficiency has demonstrated to be very high (maximum q of about 2.5 mmol.g-1) and high surfactant removal is achieved rapidly. Coagulation process may be modelated throught Gu and Zhu absorption hypothesis, so an acceptable r2 codffieient is obtained (0.94).

URL:

http://www.iwaponline.com/wpt/005/0001/0050001.pdf

273.

Authors:

Ying Zhang

Quiping Chen

Xiaowei Luo

Tiantian Dai

Gaiyi Lu

Jianfu Shen

Title:

Mutagenicity and Safety Evaluation of the Water Extract of Camellia

Publication:

Journal of Food Science

Abstract:

The prupose of this study was to evaluated the mutagenicity and safety of water extract of the fruit hull of Camellia Oleifera Abel (WECO), which was prepared using hot-reflux method. The oral maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of WECO was above 20 g/kg body weight both in rats and in mice, which can be regarded as virtually nontoxic. No mutagenicity was found in Ames test, Mouse bone marrow cell micronucleus test and mosed sperm abnormality text. In the subacute study, the SD rats were administrated orally at 0.5, 1 or 2 g/kg/BW for 30d. There were no treatment-related toxic effects from WECO. No sifnificant differences were found in parameters of body weight, hematology value, clinical chemistry value, and organ/body weight ratio. The level of no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) for WECO was 2g/kg/BW for subacute toxicity study.

With the gradual increase in tea oil production, it was in urgent need of dealing with Camellia fruit hull, which was always discarded because of low economic benefits. Camellia fruit hull has been shown to have significant antioxidant effects including DPPH radical-scavenging ability and ferric-reducing antioxidant power (Zhang and oathers 2010). Toxicological evaluation of WECO provided a fafety assurance of WECO for developing dietary supplements and functional foods.

URL:

http.www.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abstract

 

274.

Authors:

Goel, Khushbu

Das, Shreyasi

Title:

Comparative Studies on Antioxidant and Free Radical Scavenging Activities of Moringa Oleifera (Lam.) and Cassia Fistula

Publication:

Medical.wesrch.com

Abstract:

Ethanolic extracts of pods of Moringa Oleifera and Cassia fistula were taken for antioxidant activity and free readical scavenging activity. The pods of Moringa Oleifera and Cassia fistula exhibited significant reducing power  and free radical scavenging effect on TAC, FRAP, FTC, TBA and MTT. All these antioxidant acativities were concentration dependent which were compared with standard antioxidants such as BHA, ascorbic acid, BHT and rutin. In addition, total phenolic content and flavonoids was determined as gallic acid and quercetin equivalents respectively. The highest free radical scavenging of pod extract was observed at concentration of 1mg/ml for Moringa Oleifera and for Cassia fistula.

URL:

http://medical.wesrch.com/docME1XXF1E2VDML

nwar, Farooq
Siddiq, Asma
Iqbal, Shahid
Asi, M. Rafique

Title:

Stabilization of sunflower oil with Moringa oleifera leaves under ambient storage

Publication:

JOURNAL OF FOOD LIPIDS

Abstract:

The effect of Moringa oleifera leaves on the stability of sunflower oil (SFO) was investigated. The samples of M. oleifera leaves were extracted using 80 and 100% methanol, and 80 and 100% acetone, respectively. Preliminary assessment of antioxidant activity of the extracts was carried out by the estimation of total phenolic contents (TPCs), loss of beta-carotene and percent inhibition of peroxidation in linoleic acid. The TPCof different solvent extracts of M. oleifera leaves was 5.32-8.00 g/100 g (dry mass basis). The level of inhibition of peroxidation in the linoleic acid system was 85.00-91.86%. Furthermore, preheated refined, bleached and deodorized (RBD) SFO samples were stabilized with crude extracts at a concentration of 600 ppm and subjected to ambient storage for 2 months. The progression of oxidation was followed by the measurement of peroxide value, conjugated dienes, conjugated trienes, and p-anisidine values. The overall order of antioxidant efficacy of the extracts of M. oleifera leaves, as determined by various antioxidant assays and oxidation parameters, was as follows: 80% methanolic extract, > 100% methanolic extract, > 80% acetone extract and > 100% acetone extract.

URL:

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1745-4522.2006.00069.x/full

 

275.

Authors:

Anwar, Farooq
Latif, Sajid
Ashraf, Muhammad
Gilani, Anwarul Hassan

Title:

Moringa oleifera: A food plant with multiple medicinal uses

Publication:

PHYTOTHERAPY RESEARCH

Abstract:

Moringa oleifera Lam (Moringaceae) is a highly valued plant, distributed in many countries of the tropics and subtropics. It has an impressive range of medicinal uses with high nutritional value. Different parts of this plant contain a profile of important minerals, and are a good source of protein, vitamins, beta-carotene, amino acids and various phenolics. The Moringa plant provides a rich and rare combination of zeatin, quercetin, beta-sitosterol, caffeoylquinic acid and kaempferol. In addition to its compelling water purifying powers and high nutritional value, M. oteifera is very important for its medicinal value. Various parts of this plant such as the leaves, roots, seed, bark, fruit, flowers and immature pods act as cardiac and circulatory stimulants, possess antitumor, antipyretic, antiepileptic, antiinflammatory, antiulcer, antispasmodic, diuretic, antihypertensive, cholesterol lowering, antioxidant, antidiabetic, hepatoprotective, antibacterial and antifungal activities, and are being employed for the treatment of different ailments in the indigenous system of medicine, particularly in South Asia. This review focuses on the detailed phytochemical composition, medicinal uses, along with pharmacological properties of different parts of this multipurpose tree. 

URL:

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ptr.2023/abstract

 

276.

Authors:

Katayon, S.
Ng, S. C.
Johari, M. M. N. Megat
Ghani, L. A. Abdul

Title:

Preservation of coagulation efficiency of Moringa oleitera, a natural coagulant

Publication:

BIOTECHNOLOGY ANDBIOPROCESS ENGINEERING

Abstract:

In recent years, there has been an interest to use Moringa oleifera as the natural coagulant due to cost, associated health and environmental concerns of synthetic organic polymers and inorganic chemicals. However, it is known that M. oleifera as the natural coagulant is highly biodegradable and has a very short shelf life. This research was carried out to investigate the effects of storage temperature, packaging methods, and freeze-drying on the preservation of M. oleifera seeds powders. Non freeze-dried M. oleifera was prepared into different packaging namely open container, closed container and vacuum packing, whilst, freeze-dried M. oleifera was stored in closed container and vacuum packing. Each of the packaging was stored at room temperature (30 to 32 degrees C) and refrigerator (4 degrees C). The turbidity removal efficiencies of stored M. oleifera were examined using jar test at monthly interval for 12 months. The results indicated that non freeze-dried M. oleifera kept in the refrigerator (4 degrees C) would preserve its coagulation efficiency. In addition, closed container and vacuum packing were found to be more appropriate for the preservation of non freeze-dried M. oleifera, compared to open container. Freeze-dried M. oleifera retained its high coagulation efficiency regardless the storage temperature and packaging method for up to 11 months. Besides, higher increment in zeta potential values for water coagulated with freeze-dried M. oleifera indicated the higher frequency of charge neutralization and better coagulation efficiency of freeze-dried M. oleifera, compared to non freeze-dried seeds. As a coagulant, M. oleifera did not affect the pH of the water after treatment.

URL:

http://cat.inist.fr/?aModele=afficheN&cpsidt=21321987

277.

Authors:

Dongmeza, Euloge
Siddhuraju, Perumal
Francis, George
Becker, Klaus

Title:

Effects of dehydrated methanol extracts of moringa (Moringa oleifera Lam.) leaves and three of its fractions on growth performance and feed nutrient assimilation in Niletilapia (Oreochromis niloticus (L.))

Publication:

AQUACULTURE

Abstract:

A 10-week feeding trial was conducted in a recirculation system at (27 +/- 0.5 degrees C) to determine the effect of a methanol extract of moringa leaf meal and its different fractions. Nine isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets containing 35% crude protein and 20 MJ kg(-1) gross energy were used. All the experimental diets contained the same amount of fish meal. The inclusion of moringa methanol extract or of moringa extract fractions occurred by replacing the wheat meal. These diets were then denoted as diets 1 (control without any moringa product), 2, 3 (containing respectively 10.6 and 17.7% of moringa leaf meal methanol extract), 4, 5 (containing respectively 9.3 and 15.4% of a tannin-reduced fraction), 6, 7 (containing respectively 2.6 and 4.3% of a saponin-enriched fraction), 8 and 9 (containing respectively 7 and 11.6% of a tannin- and saponin-reduced fraction). Thirty six fish (four fish per treatment), with mean initial body mass of 4.9-5.2 g, were kept individually. They were fed the experimental diets at the rate of 15 g feed per kg metabolic body weight (kg(0.8)) per day. Up to the 5th experimental week, no difference in growth performance was observed between all the groups. At the end of the experiment, a significant (P < 0.05) reduction of the growth performance of all the fish fed diets containing moringa 80% methanol extract or the extract fractions was generally observed when they were compared to the fish fed with the control diet. The whole body moisture, ash and crude protein of the fish fed diets containing moringa crude extract or extract fractions were not significantly different to those of the control group. Body lipid was significantly reduced for the fish fed the diets 2, 4, 5 and 9 when compared to control. Muscle and plasma cholesterol levels were generally reduced for the fish fed diets containing moringa, extract and extract fractions (except for the group 5 which showed higher muscle cholesterol than that of the control). The fish in the groups 2 and 5 had significantly lower hepatosomatic indices when compared to control. On the other hand, the intestinalsomatic indices (ISI) of the groups 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7 were generally higher than the control group and the groups 8 and 9 had lower ISI than the control group. The relatively high total phenolics and saponins in diets 2 to 9 may have contributed to the poorer growth performance in these groups.

URL:

No url

 

278.

Authors:

Bhatia, Subhash
Othman, Zalina
Ahmad, Abdul L.

Title:

Palm oil mill effluent pretreatment using Moringa oleifera seeds as an environmentally friendly coagulant: laboratory and pilot plant studies

Publication:

JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY ANDBIOTECHNOLOGY

Abstract:

This research paper covers the suitability of the coagulation-flocculation process using Moringa oleifera seeds after oil extraction as a natural and environmentally friendly coagulant for palm oil mill effluent treatment. The performance of M. oleifera coagulant was studied along with the flocculant KP 9650 in removal of suspended solids, organic components and in increasing the floc size. The optimum values of the operating parameters obtained from the laboratory jar test were applied in a pilot-scale treatment plant comprised of coagulation-flocculation and filtration processes. Pilot-scale pretreatment resulted in 99.7% suspended solids removal, 71.5% COD reduction, 68.2% BOD reduction, 100% oil and grease removal and 91% TKN removal. In pilot plant pretreatment, the percentage recovery of water was 83.3%, and 99.7% sludge was recovered after dewatering in a filter press.

URL:

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/jctb.1619/abstract

 

279.

Authors:

Nadeem, Muhammad
Mahmood, A.
Shahid, S. A.
Shah, S. S.
Khalid, A. M.
McKay, G.

Title:

Sorption of lead from aqueous solution by chemically modified carbon adsorbents

Publication:

JOURNAL OF HAZARDOUS MATERIALS

Abstract:

An indigenously prepared, steam activated and chemically modified carbon from husk and pods of Moringa oleifera (M. oleifera), an agricultural waste, was comparatively examined as an adsorbent for the removal of lead from aqueous solutions. Studies were conducted as a function of contact time, initial metal concentration, dose of adsorbent, agitation speed, particle size and pH. Maximum uptake capacities were found to be, 98.89, 96.58, 91.8, 88.63, 79.43% for cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB), phosphoric, sulfuric, hydrochloric acid treated and untreated carbon adsorbents, respectively. Bangham, pseudo-first- and second-order, intra-particle diffusion equations were implemented to express the sorption mechanism by utilized adsorbents. Adsorption rate of lead ions was found to be considerably faster for chemically modified adsorbents than unmodified. The results of adsorption were fitted to both the Langmuir and Freundlich models. Satisfactory agreement between the metal uptake capacities by the adsorbents at different time intervals was expressed by the correlation coefficient (R-2). The Langmuir model represented the sorption process better than the Freundlich one, with R-2 values ranging from 0.994 to 0.998.

URL:

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16839677

 

280.

Authors:

Liu, Yeting
Perera, Conrad O.
Suresh, Valiyaveettil

Title:

Comparison of three chosen vegetables with others from South East Asiafor their lutein and zeaxanthin content

Publication:

FOOD CHEMISTRY

Abstract:

Three local leafy vegetables chekup manis (Sauropus androgynus), West Indian pea tree leaves (Sesbania grandiflora (L.) Pers.), and drumstick tree leaves (Moringa oleifera), are consumed by local South East Asian populations and are believed to have beneficial effects on improved vision and prevention of eye diseases. High performance liquid chromatography equipped with photodiode array detection was used to investigate their lutein and zeaxanthin contents, which were compared with those from other commonly found vegetables in the region. It was found that these three leafy vegetables contained significantly higher amounts of lutein namely, 19.5, 28.3, and 24.8 mg/100 g edible fresh leaves, respectively, compared to other vegetables in the region. It was also found that cooking in boiling water increase the extractable lutein content in chekup manis by almost 20%, within 4 min.

URL:

http://www.fstadirect.com/GetRecord.aspx?AN=2006-12-Jq4748

 

281.

Authors:

Lako, Jimaima
Trenerry, V. Craige
Wahlqvist, Mark
Wattanapenpaiboon, Naiyana
Sotheeswaran, Subramanium
Premier, Robert

Title:

Phytochemical flavonols, carotenoids and the antioxidant properties of a wide selection of Fijian fruit, vegetables and other readily available foods

Publication:

FOOD CHEMISTRY

Abstract:

Frequent consumption of fruits and vegetables is associated with a lowered risk of cancer, heart disease, hypertension and stroke. This has been attributed to the presence of various forms of phytochemicals and antioxidants present in the foods, e.g. carotenoids and polyphenol compounds including flavonoids and anthocyanins. Seventy Fiji grown fruits and vegetables, and some other commonly consumed products, were analysed for their total antioxidant capacity (TAC), total polyphenol content (TPP), total anthocyanin content (TAT) as well as the major flavonol and carotenoid profiles. These data will be used to estimate the phytochemical and antioxidant intake of the Fijian population and will be a useful tool in future clinical trials.
Green leafy vegetables had the highest antioxidant capacity, followed by the fruits and root crops. A number of herbs also exhibited high antioxidant capacity. Ipomoea batatas (sweet potato) leaves have the highest TAC (650 mg/100 g) and are rich in TPP (270 mg/100 g), quercetin (90 mg/100 g) and P-carotene (13 mg/100 g). Moringa oleifera (drumstick) leaves also have a high TAC (260 mg/100 g) and are rich in TPP (260 mg/100 g), quercetin (100 mg/100 g), kaempferol (34 mg/100 g) and P-carotene (34 mg/100 g). Curcuma longa (turmeric ginger) has a high TAC (360 mg/100 g), TPP (320 mg/100 g) and is rich in fisetin (64 mg/100 g), quercetin (41 mg/100 g) and myricetin (17 mg/100 g). Zingiber officinate (white ginger) also has a high TAC (320 mg/100 g) and TPP (200 mg/100 g). Zingiber zerumbet (wild ginger), a widely used herb taken before meals is the richest source of kaempferol (240 mg/100 g).

URL:

http://www.fstadirect.com/GetRecord.aspx?AN=2006-12-Ja4756

 

282.

Authors:

Sharma, Partil
Kumari, Pushpa
Srivastava, M. M.
Srivastava, Shalini

Title:

Ternary biosorption studies of Cd(II), Cr(III) and Ni(II) on shelled Moringa oleifera seeds

Publication:

BIORESOURCE TECHNOLOGY

Abstract:

Competitive biosorption of Cd(II), Cr(III) and Ni(II) on unmodified shelled Moringa oleifera seeds (SMOS) present in ternary mixture were compared with the single metal solution. The extent of adsorption capacity of the ternary metal ions tested on unmodified SMOS was low (10-20%) as compared to single metal ions. SMOS removed the target metal ions in the selectivity order of Cd(II) > Cr(III) > Ni(II). Sorption equilibria, calculated from adsorption data, explained favorable performance of biosorption system. Regeneration of exhausted biomass was also attempted for several cycles with a view to restore the sorbent to its original state.

URL:

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16459076

 

283.

Authors:

Anwar, Farooq
Zafar, Syeda Nahid
Rashid, Umer

Title:

Characterization of Moringa oleifera seed oil from drought and irrigated regions of Punjab, Pakistan

Publication:

GRASAS Y ACEITES

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to investigate the composition of M.oleifra seed oil from drought and irrigated regions of Fakistan. The hexane-extraded oil content of M. oleifera seeds harvested from one drought (Layyah) and two irrigated regions (Rahim Yar Khan, Jhang) of Puniab, Pakistan was found to be 30.36 and 35.26, 38.37% respectively. Results of physical and chemical carametres of the extracted oils were as follows: iodine value, 65.86 and 70.50, 67.86; refractiveindex (40 degrees C), 1.4570 and 1.4582, 1.4581; density (24 degrees C), 0.9509 and 0.9069, 0.9002 mg mL(-1); saponification value, 181.1 and 183.7,183.1; unsaponifaiable matter, 0.84 and 0.85, 0.97%; acidity (as oleic acid) 0.28 and 0.35, 0.33%.
The induction period (Rancimat 20L/h, 120 degrees C) af the M.oleifera from the drought region was significaritty higher (9.63 h) as compared with those of irrigated regions (8.74, 8.33, h). Specific extinctions at 232 and 270 nm were 1.92 and 1.98, 1.68; 1.02 and 0.97, 0.75 respectively. The overall contents of tocopherols (alpha, gamma and delta), which did not differ significantly in the Morniga oils from both regions ranged from 95.35-103.80, 80.26-36.56 and 55.75-64.55 mg kg(-1) respectively. Fatty acid profiles of the M.oleifera oils from drought and irrigated regions of Punjab consisted in a high level of oleic acid (up to 72.38 and 75.55, 74.66 %) followed by palmitic and behenic acid (up to 0.26 and 8.76, 9.20 and 5.46 and 3.72, 4.53 %) respectively. Results of various physical and chemical parameters of the investigated M.oleifera seed oils revealed that drought is one of the most visible factors that have amplified the induction period and C22:0 content of the oils and reduced seed weight, oil yield, iodine value and C18:1 content.

URL:

http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=abstract&id=278222

 

284.

Authors:

Chuang, Ping-Hsien
Lee, Chi-Wei
Chou, Jia-Ying
Murugan, M.
Shieh, Bor-Jinn
Chen, Hueih-Min

Title:

Anti-fungal activity of crude extracts and essential oil of Moringa oleifera Lam

Publication:

BIORESOURCE TECHNOLOGY

Abstract:

Investigations were carried out to evaluate the therapeutic properties of the seeds and leaves of Moringa oleifera Lam as herbal medicines. Ethanol extracts showed anti-fungal activities in vitro against dermatophytes such as Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Epidermophyton floccosum, and Microsporum canis. GC-MS analysis of the chemical composition of the essential oil from leaves showed a total of 44 compounds. Isolated extracts could be of use for the future development of anti-skin disease agents.

URL:

http://www.moringanews.org/documents/antifungal.pdf

 

285.

Authors:

Arabshahi-D, Saeedeh
Devi, D. Vishalakshi
Urooj, Asna

Title:

Evaluation of antioxidant activity of some plant extracts and their heat, pH and storage stability

Publication:

FOOD CHEMISTRY

Abstract:

In the present study, three plant foods, namely, drumstick leaves (Moringa oleifera), mint leaves (Mentha spicata) and carrot tuber (Daucus carota) were extracted with ethanol and analyzed for their antioxidant activity. The antioxidant activity of extracts was evaluated according to the amount of malonaldehyde (MDA) formed by the FeSO4-induced oxidation of linoleic acid and a high PUFA oil (sunflower oil) at 37 degrees C in Trizma-buffer (pH 7.4). At a concentration of 1.5 mg/ml of linoleic acid the extracts from drumstick and carrot had a higher antioxidant activity (83% and 80%) than alpha-tocopherol (72%). In sunflower oil, the extracts from drumstick leaves and mint leaves were found to exhibit a similar activity (46% and 44%). The extract from drumstick exhibited the highest activity in both lipid systems. In addition, the stability of extracts to pH (4 and 9) and temperature (100 degrees C, 15 min) was investigated. The antioxidant activity of the extracts from mint leaves and carrot was higher at pH 9 than pH 4, while that of drumstick extract remained the same under both pH conditions. The extract from carrot was more heat-stable than other extracts. The three extracts stored in the dark at 5 and 25 degrees C after a 15 day period did not show any significant change (p <= 0.05) in their antioxidant activity. These data indicate that selected plant extracts are potential sources of dietary antioxidants.

URL:

http://www.fstadirect.com/GetRecord.aspx?AN=2006-10-Jh3764

 

286.

Authors:

Lalas, Stavros
Gortzi, Olga
Tsaknis, John

Title:

Frying stability of Moringa stenopetala seed oil

Publication:

PLANT FOODS FOR HUMAN NUTRITION

Abstract:

The frying performance of Moringa stenopetala seed oil (extracted with cold press or n-hexane) was studied especially as regards repeated frying operations. The oils were used for intermittent frying of potato slices and cod filets at a temperature of 175 degrees C for 5 consecutive days (5 fryings per day). The chemical changes occurring in oils were evaluated. Free fatty acid content, polar compounds, colour and viscosity of the oils all increased, whereas the iodine value, smoke point, polyunsaturated fatty acid content, induction period and tocopherol content decreased. The effect of the oil on the organoleptic quality of these fried foods and the theoretical number of frying operations possible before having to discard the oil was also determined. The analytical and sensory data showed that the lowest deterioration occurred in cold press produced oil.

URL:

http://www.springerlink.com/content/j7u40238313mn820/

 

287.

Authors:

Adandonon, A.
Aveling, T. A. S.
Labuschagne, N.
Tamo, M.

Title:

Biocontrol agents in combination with Moringa oleifera extract for integrated control of Sclerotium-caused cowpea damping-off and stem rot

Publication:

EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF PLANT PATHOLOGY

Abstract:

Damping-off and stem rot disease-causing Sclerotium rolfsii has been reported as a destructive soil-borne pathogen of numerous crops, especially in the tropics and subtropics. Trials were conducted to test the efficacy of biocontrol agents alone or combined with Moringa oleifera leaf extracts for the control of the disease. In the laboratory, PDAwas amended with Moringa leaf extract, and mycelial growth of S. rolfsii was measured. In the greenhouse and field, Trichoderma Kd 63, Trichoderma IITA 508 and Bacillus subtilis were evaluated as seed treatments, soil drench or sprinkle, separately or combined with Moringa leaf extracts. Percentage disease incidence, severity and control were recorded. In the laboratory, the higher the extract concentration the less the mycelial growth and no mycelial growth occurred on extract at 15 or 20 g leaves 10 ml(-1)water. In the greenhouse, the highest disease control was observed at a Moringa extract concentration of 15 kg leaves 10 l(-1) water (w/v). Seed treatments using Trichoderma Kd 63, and soil sprinkle using Trichoderma IITA 508 had a significantly (P = 0.05) higher effect on a disease incidence than Bacillus. Disease severity followed the same pattern. Moringa seed treatment combined with Trichoderma soil sprinkle resulted in significantly more than 94% and 70% disease control in the greenhouse and field, respectively, with significant yield increase in the field. This is the first report of Moringa leaf extract combined with Trichoderma as an integrated control for Sclerotium damping-off and stem rot of cowpea in the field.

URL:

http://www.springerlink.com/content/7814750734431vk8/

 

288.

Authors:

Iqbal, Shahid
Bhanger, M. I.

Title:

Effect of season and production location on antioxidant activity of Moringa oleifera leaves grown in Pakistan

Publication:

JOURNAL OF FOOD COMPOSITION ANDANALYSIS

Abstract:

Antioxidant activity (AA) of methanolic extracts from Moringa oleifera leaves, as function of seasons and agroclimatic locations, was investigated. Total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), ascorbic acid (AAcid) content, reducing power, AA in linoleic acid system and scavenging power of superoxide anion radical were taken as parameters for evaluation of AA. Significant differences were observed in the AA of the extracts from different locations and seasons. Generally, samples from Mardaan exhibited highest AA followed by Balakot, Chakwal, Jamshoro, and Nawabshah. Overall antioxidant efficacy was greater in December or March depending upon location, and least in June. Antioxidant potential of M. oleifera leaves from Pakistanwas quite comparable or higher than literature values for M. oleifera from other countries and some other potent antioxidants. This work shows that season and agroclimatic locations have profound effect on the AA of M. oleifera leaves.

URL:

http://www.fstadirect.com/GetRecord.aspx?AN=2006-09-Jq3263

 

289.

Authors:

Kidmose, U.
Yang, R. -Y.
Thilsted, S. H.
Christensen, L. P.
Brandt, K.

Title:

Content of carotenoids in commonly consumed Asian vegetables and stability and extractability during frying

Publication:

JOURNAL OF FOOD COMPOSITION ANDANALYSIS

Abstract:

In order to investigate the variation in beta-carotene and vitamin A in commonly consumed vegetables in Asia, different leafy vegetables were analyzed. The mean beta-carotene content varied between 16 and 6630 mu g/100g fresh weight (FW) with the highest content in drumstick leaves and the lowest content in common cabbage and Garland chrysanthemum leaves. In six tuber and fruit vegetables, the mean beta-carotene content varied between 311 and 15,400 mu g/100g FW with the highest content in a chili pepper variety. Vitamin A activity varied significantly between the investigated vegetables (1-1280 mu g retinol activity equivalents (RAE)/100g FW). The retention of beta-carotene and formation of cis-isomers were investigated in selected vegetables during stir-frying. Retentions of all-trans-beta-carotene varied between 73% and 98% in sweet bell pepper, sweet potato and tomato that were fried for 1/2-3 min. In sweet potato, 13-cis-beta-carotene was the major cis-isomer of beta-carotene, while only minor amounts of 15-cis- and 9-cis-beta-carotene were formed. The total amount of cis-isomers of beta-carotene formed during frying depended on the frying time and the size with the highest amount in cubes, that were fried for 3min (1070 mu g 13-cis-beta-carotene/100g FW). In leafy vegetables, only 13-cis-beta-carotene was detected during frying. Extraction of beta-carotene into the frying oil was only observed in low amounts after 3 min frying of sweet potato shreds

URL:

http://cat.inist.fr/?aModele=afficheN&cpsidt=17954269

 

290.

Authors:

Katayon, S
Noor, MJMM
Asma, M
Ghani, LAA
Thamer, AM
Azni, I
Ahmad, J
Khor, BC
Suleyman, AM

Title:

Effects of storage conditions of Moringa oleifera seeds on its performance in coagulation

Publication:

BIORESOURCE TECHNOLOGY

Abstract:

Moringa oleifera is a plant whose seeds have coagulation properties for treating water and wastewater. In this study the coagulation efficiency of Moringa oleifera kept in different storage conditions were studied. The Moringa oleifera seeds were stored at different conditions and durations; open container and closed container at room temperature (28 degrees C) and refrigerator (3 degrees C) for durations of 1, 3 and 5 months. Comparison between turbidity removal efficiency of Moringa oleifera kept in refrigerator and room temperature revealed that there was no significant difference between them. The Moringa oleifera kept in refrigerator and room temperature for one month showed higher turbidity removal efficiency, compared to those kept for 3 and 5 months, at both containers. The coagulation efficiency of Moringa oleifera was found to be dependent on initial turbidity of water samples. Highest turbidity removals were obtained for water with very high initial turbidity. In summary coagulation efficiency of Moringa oleifera was found independent of storage temperature and container, however coagulation efficiency of Moringa oleifera decreased as storage duration increased. In addition, Moringa oleifera can be used as a potential coagulant especially for very high turbidity water.

URL:

http://md1.csa.com/partners/viewrecord.php?requester=gs&collection=ENV&recid=6860404&q=&uid=790284667&setcookie=yes

291.

Authors:

Sanchez, NR
Sporndly, E
Ledin, I

Title:

Effect of feeding different levels of foliage of Moringa oleifera to creole dairy cows on intake, digestibility, milk production and composition

Publication:

LIVESTOCK SCIENCE

Abstract:

An experiment was conducted in Nicaraguato determine the effect of feeding different levels of foliage from Moringa oleifera Lam (synonym: Moringa pterygosperma Gaertner) to dairy cows on intake, digestibility, milk production and milk composition. The treatments were: Brachiaria brizantha hay ad libitum, either unsupplemented or supplemented with 2 kg or 3 kg of Moringa on a dry matter (DM) basis. Six Bos indicus cows of the Creole Reyna breed, with a mean body weight of 394 +/- 24 kg were used in a replicated 3 x 3 Latin square design. Supplementation with Moringa increased (P < 0.05) DM intake from 8.5 to 10.2 and 11.0 kg DM day(-1) and milk production from 3.1 to 4.9 and 5.1 kg day(-1) for B. brizantha hay only and supplementation with 2 kg and 3 kg DM of Moringa, respectively. Milk fat, total solids and crude protein and organoleptic characteristics, smell, taste and colour, were not significantly different between the diets. Apparent digestibility coefficients of DM, OM, CP, NDF and ADF increased (P < 0.05) in the diets supplemented with Moringa compared with B. brizantha hay alone. The results showed that the inclusion of Moringa as a protein supplement to low quality diets improved DM intake and digestibility of the diet and increased milk production but did not affect milk composition.

URL:

http://www.livestockscience.com/article/S0301-6226(05)00383-0/abstract

 

292.

Authors:

Abdulkarim, SM
Lai, OM
Muhammad, SKS
Long, K
Ghazali, HM

Title:

Use of enzymes to enhance oil recovery during aqueous extraction of Moringa oleifera seed oil

Publication:

JOURNAL OF FOOD LIPIDS

Abstract:

Moringa oleifera seed oil was extracted using four different types of enzymes to obtain the most efficient extraction parameters. The enzymes used were Neutrase 0.8L (neutral protease), Termamyl 120L, type L (alpha-amylase), Pectinex Ultra SP-L (pectinase) and Celluclast 1.5L FG (cellulase). These were used either separately or in combination. Individually, Neutrase was found to be the most effective, followed by Termamyl, Celluclast and Pectinex. A combination of the four enzymes was found to be more effective than used separately, with 74% oil recovery. Percent oil recovery for individual enzymes under optimal conditions and with pH adjusted to the individual enzyme’s optimum pH were 71.9, 64.8, 62.6 and 56.5 for Neutrase, Termamyl, Celluclast and Pectinex, respectively. Neutrase, Pectinex and the combination of all the four enzymes at 2% (v/w) were found to perform best at 45C, while Termamyl and Celluclast were best at 60C. The physical and chemical properties of the extracted oils such as iodine value (IV) (66.0-67.2 g iodine/100 g oil), free fatty acid (FFA) content (1.13-1.25 as % oleic acid), complete melting points (MPs) (18.6-19.1C) and viscosities (83.1-85.0 cP) except the color were not significantly affected (P > 0.05) by the type of enzyme used in the pretreatment of the seed. However, apart from IV and MP, the values for other properties were significantly different (P < 0.05) from those obtained for solvent-extracted samples.

URL:

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1745-4522.2006.00038.x/full

 

293.

Authors:

Karadi, RV
Gadge, NB
Alagawadi, KR
Savadi, RV

Title:

Effect of Moringa oleifera Lam. root-wood on ethylene glycol induced urolithiasis in rats

Publication:

JOURNAL OF ETHNOPHARMACOLOGY

Abstract:

In India, drumstick (Moringa oleifera Lam. (Moringaceae)) is commonly used as a phytotherapeutic agent. The effect of oral administration of aqueous and alcoholic extract of Moringa oleifera root-wood on calcium oxalate urolithiasis has been studied in male Wistar albino rats. Ethylene glycol feeding resulted in hyperoxaluria as well as increased renal excretion of calcium and phosphate. Supplementation with aqueous and alcoholic extract of Moringa oleifera root-wood significantly reduced the elevated urinary oxalate, showing a regulatory action on endogenous oxalate synthesis. The increased deposition of stone forming constituents in the kidneys of calculogenic rats was also significantly lowered by curative and preventive treatment using aqueous and alcoholic extracts. The results indicate that the root-wood of Moringa oleifera is endowed with antiurolithiatic activity.

URL:

http://cat.inist.fr/?aModele=afficheN&cpsidt=17691800

 

294.

Authors:

Yang, RY
Tsou, SCS
Lee, TC
Chang, LC
Kuo, G
Lai, PY

Title:

Moringa, a novel plant rich in antioxidants, bioavailable iron, and nutrients

Publication:

HERBS: CHALLENGES IN CHEMISTRY ANDBIOLOGY

Abstract:

A strong food-based approach is critical to alleviate nutritional deficiencies in the tropics. Our survey of over 120 species of Asian indigenous vegetables for nutrient contents, antioxidant activities (AOA), and indigenous knowledge of their medicinal uses indicated that Moringa oleifera was among the most promising species. We conducted additional studies to evaluate four Moringa species for AOA, antioxidant contents and nutritional quality, and to investigate M. oleifera’s AOA and iron as affected by freezing, boiling, and in vitro digestion. We concluded that the four Moringa species are high in AOA, antioxidant and nutrient contents, low in oxalate content. Boiling in water enhanced aqueous AOA, and the AOA was maintained after simulated digestion. Cooking Moringa increased available iron and raised total available iron of mixtures with mungbean. Moringa, an easily grown perennial, have tremendous potential to improve diets and health.

URL:

http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/bk-2006-0925.ch017

295.

Authors:

Ghebremichael, KA
Gunaratna, KR
Dalhammar, G

Title:

Single-step ion exchange purification of the coagulant protein from Moringa oleifera seed

Publication:

APPLIED MICROBIOLOGY ANDBIOTECHNOLOGY

Abstract:

The coagulant protein from Moringa oleifera (MO) seed was purified using a single-step batch ion exchange (IEX) method. Adsorption and elution parameters were optimized. Impact of the purification on the reduction of organic and nutrient release to the water was studied. The matrix was equilibrated using ammonium acetate buffer, and the optimum ionic strength of NaCl for elution was 0.6 M. The time for adsorption equilibrium was between 90 and 120 min. Maximum adsorption capacity of the matrix, estimated with the Langmuir model, was 68 mg protein/g adsorbent. The purified protein does not release organic and nutrient loads to the water, which are the main concerns of the crude extract. This work suggests that a readily scalable single-step IEXpurification method can be used to produce the coagulant protein and it can be carried out with locally available facilities. This will promote the use of MO in large water treatment plants and other industries.

URL:

http://www.springerlink.com/content/363581925124v35g/

296.

Authors:

Zhang, JD
Zhang, F
Luo, YH
Yang, H

Title:

A preliminary study on cactus as coagulant in water treatment

Publication:

PROCESS BIOCHEMISTRY

Abstract:

The coagulation performance of cactus to act as natural macromolecular coagulant was studied by the jar test. The cactus coagulation attained comparatively high turbidity removal efficiency, and water with turbidity less than 5NTU could be obtained with initial turbidities from 20 to 200. When used to treat the same water sample, the optimum dosage of cactus coagulant was found similar to that of AlCl3 center dot 6H(2)O. Effects of factors such as pH, temperature, alkalinity on cactus coagulation were also studied. High removal efficiency of turbidity and COD could be obtained when cactus solids were used to treat sewage water, potable water source (taken from Changjiang, Wuhan) and high turbidity seawater. When cactus was used with AlCl3 center dot 6H(2)O synchronously to treat sewage water, the removal efficiency of turbidity and COD were higher than that of cactus or AlCl3 center dot 6H(2)O was used solely.

URL:

http://cat.inist.fr/?aModele=afficheN&cpsidt=17547346

 

297.

Authors:

Sanchez, NR
Ledin, S
Ledin, I

Title:

Biomass production and chemical composition of Moringa oleifera under different management regimes in Nicaragua

Publication:

AGROFORESTRY SYSTEMS

Abstract:

The effects of different planting densities (250,000, 500,000 and 750,000 plants ha(-1)) and cutting frequencies (45, 60 and 75 days) on the biomass production and chemical composition of Moringa oleifera was studied in a completely randomised split plot design with four blocks, in Managua, Nicaragua, located geographically at 12 degrees 08’15” N and 86 degrees 09’36”E. The 75 day cutting frequency produced the highest fresh matter yield, 100.7 and 57.4 Mg ha(-1) year(-1), and dry matter (DM) yield, 24.7 and 10.4 Mg ha(-1) yea(-1), during the first and second year, respectively. All planting densities produced the highest DM yield at 75 day cutting frequency. In the first year, the density of 750,000 plants ha(-1) produced the highest fresh matter yield, 88.0 Mg ha(-1) and highest DM yield, 18.9 Mg ha(-1), but in the second year the density of 500,000 plants ha(-1) gave the highest yields, 46.2 Mg ha(-1) and 8.1 Mg ha(-1), respectively. During the first year, DM (22.8%), neutral detergent fibre (NDF) (30.8%) and ash (9.14%) contents were highest and in vitro DM digestibility (IVDMD) (68.2%) was lowest in the longest cutting interval, while contents of crude protein (CP) (22.8%) and acid detergent fibre (ADF) (22.8%) were not affected significantly by cutting frequency. In the second year, DM and CP contents and IVDMD were not significantly affected by cutting frequency, whereas NDF, ADF and ash contents were lowest in the 60 day cutting frequency. Planting density had no significant effect on chemical composition or IVDMD. These data suggest that Moringa forage could be an interesting protein supplement for ruminants.

URL:

http://www.springerlink.com/content/x43274582447210k/

 

298.

Authors:

Ndemanisho, EE
Kimoro, BN
Mtengeti, EJ
Muhikambele, VRM

Title:

The potential of Albizia lebbeck as a supplementary feed for goats in tanzania

Publication:

AGROFORESTRY SYSTEMS

Abstract:

Forty growing goats (20 males and 20 females) were used in a 90-day growth and intake study to evaluate the potential of Albizia lebbeck (ABC) based concentrate as compared with Gliricidia sepium (GBC), Leucaena leucocephala (LBC), and Moringa oleifera (MBC) based concentrates with cotton seed cake (CSC) as a control. The animals were fed a basal diet of maize stover and supplemented daily with 30 g/kg W-0.75 of ABC, GBC, LBC, MBC, and CSC. They were compounded so as to formulate iso-protein diets. Treatment effects were significant (p < 0.05) for growth rates in that with the exception of GBC, goats on CSCexhibited significantly higher gains compared to counterparts in other treatments. The total DM intake was between 50.6 and 52.6 g/kg W-0.75/day and there were no significant (p > 0.05) differences among treatments. There were significant differences (p < 0.05) among treatments for maize stover intake. CSCbased treatment showed the highest intake with insignificant (p > 0.05) differences amongst the leaf meal based concentrates. It can be concluded that Albizia lebbeck had similar potential to the other leaf meal based supplements studied but had lower potential compared to a cotton seed cake based supplement, as protein sources for growing goats fed a poor quality basal diet.

URL:

http://www.springerlink.com/content/q78726w71g657685/

 

299.

Authors:

Kumari, P
Sharma, P
Srivastava, S
Srivastava, MM

Title:

Biosorption studies on shelled Moringa oleifera Lamarck seed powder: Removal and recovery of arsenic from aqueous system

Publication:

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MINERAL PROCESSING

Abstract:

The present study explores the unexploited sorption property of the shelled Moringa oleifera seeds (SMOS) for decontamination of arsenic from water bodies. Sorption studies (batch experiments) result into the standardization of optimum conditions for removal of 60.21% As(III) and 85.60% As(V) as follows: biomass dosage (2.0 g), metal concentration (25 mg/L), contact time (60 min) and volume of the test solution (200 ml) at pH 7.5 and 2.5, respectively. The adsorption data are fitted with Langmuir isotherm. Surface area has been measured using BET surface area analyzer. Morphological changes observed in scanning electron micrograph of native and treated SMOS indicates the existence of biosorption process. Fourier transform infrared spectrometry of exhausted seed biomass highlights protein/amino acid-arsenic interactions responsible for sorption phenomenon. Regeneration has also been attempted for several cycles with a view to restore the sorbent to its original state. The sorption capacity of the regenerated biomass remained almost constant after three cycles of sorption process, suggesting that the lifetime cycle was sufficient for continuous application. The findings open up new avenues in the decontamination of arsenic using SMOS from arsenic contaminated water, as domestic and environment-friendly safe technology.

URL:

http://scholar.google.com/scholar?cluster=2415862024601959629&hl=en&as_sdt=0,5

 

300.

Authors:

Sanchez-Machado, DI
Lopez-Cervantes, J
Vazquez, NJR

Title:

High-performance liquid chromatography method to measure alpha- and gamma-tocopherol in leaves, flowers and fresh beans from Moringa oleifera

Publication:

JOURNAL OF CHROMATOGRAPHY A

Abstract:

A high-performance liquid chromatography method for the microscale determination of alpha- and gamma-tocopherol in leaves, flowers and fresh beans from Moringa oleifera is reported. The method includes microscale saponification and extraction with n-hexane. Optimized conditions for reversed-phase HPLC with UV detection were as follows: colunm, 25 cm x 0.46 cm, Exil ODS 5-mu m; column temperature, 25 degrees C; mobile phase, a 20:80 (v/v) mixture of methanol: acetonitrile; flow rate, 1.0 ml/min. With these conditions, method precision (relative standard deviation) was 5.6% for alpha-tocopherol and 4.9% for gamma-tocopherol. We used this method to measure alpha- and gamma-tocopherol in samples from M. oleifera as part of nutritional studies in edible plants cultivated in the Northwest Mexico.

URL:

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16439255

 

301.

Authors:

Kumari, P
Sharma, P
Srivastava, S
Srivastava, MM

Title:

Arsenic removal from the aqueous system using plant biomass: a bioremedial approach

Publication:

JOURNAL OF INDUSTRIAL MICROBIOLOGY & BIOTECHNOLOGY

Abstract:

Metal species released into the environment by technological activities tend to persist indefinitely, circulating and eventually accumulating throughout the food chain, thus becoming a serious threat to the environment. Environment pollution by toxic metals occurs globally through military, industrial, and agricultural processes and waste disposal. Bioremediation processes are the target of recent research and are considered low-cost, ecofriendly methods to alleviate the current problems of water decontamination, particularly for remote and rural areas. The present piece of work reports the unexploited sorption properties of the powdered seed of the plant Moringa oleifera (SMOS) for the removal of Arsenic [As(III) and As(V)] from aqueous solutions. Sorption studies, using standard practices, result in the standardization of optimum conditions such as biomass dosages (2.0 g), metal concentrations (25 ppm), contact time (60 min) and volume of the test solutions (200 ml) at pH 7.5, for As(III) and pH 2.5 for As(V). Maximum sorption for As(III) and As(V) species is 60.21 and 85.6%, respectively. Protein/Amino acid-Arsenic interactions are found to play an important role in the biosorption process using plant biomass SMOS.

URL:

http://www.springerlink.com/content/335l411131301206/

 

302.

Authors:

Sanchez-Martin, J.

Beltran-Heredia, J.

Title:

Sufactant-polluted surface water treatment with Moringa

Publication:

Universidad de Extremadura, Department of Chemical Engineering and Physical Chemistry, Avda. de

Abstract:

Moringa Oleifera seed extract has been tested in removing surfactants frompolluted surface water. River water has been polluted with sodium lauryl sulphate, a spread surfactant, and Jar-test have been carried out in order to evaluate the efficiency of this natural coagulant agent inside a real surface water matrix. Efficiency has demonstrated to be very high (maximum q of about 2.5 mmol.g-1) and high surfactant removal is achieved rapidly. Coagulation process may be modelated throught Gu and Zhu absorption hypothesis, so an acceptable r2 codffieient is obtained (0.94).

URL:

http://www.iwaponline.com/wpt/005/0001/0050001.pdf

303.

Authors:

Ying Zhang

Quiping Chen

Xiaowei Luo

Tiantian Dai

Gaiyi Lu

Jianfu Shen

Title:

Mutagenicity and Safety Evaluation of the Water Extract of Camellia

Publication:

Journal of Food Science

Abstract:

The prupose of this study was to evaluated the mutagenicity and safety of water extract of the fruit hull of Camellia Oleifera Abel (WECO), which was prepared using hot-reflux method. The oral maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of WECO was above 20 g/kg body weight both in rats and in mice, which can be regarded as virtually nontoxic. No mutagenicity was found in Ames test, Mouse bone marrow cell micronucleus test and mosed sperm abnormality text. In the subacute study, the SD rats were administrated orally at 0.5, 1 or 2 g/kg/BW for 30d. There were no treatment-related toxic effects from WECO. No sifnificant differences were found in parameters of body weight, hematology value, clinical chemistry value, and organ/body weight ratio. The level of no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) for WECO was 2g/kg/BW for subacute toxicity study.

With the gradual increase in tea oil production, it was in urgent need of dealing with Camellia fruit hull, which was always discarded because of low economic benefits. Camellia fruit hull has been shown to have significant antioxidant effects including DPPH radical-scavenging ability and ferric-reducing antioxidant power (Zhang and oathers 2010). Toxicological evaluation of WECO provided a fafety assurance of WECO for developing dietary supplements and functional foods.

URL:

http.www.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abstract

 

304.

Authors:

Goel, Khushbu

Das, Shreyasi

Title:

Comparative Studies on Antioxidant and Free Radical Scavenging Activities of Moringa Oleifera (Lam.) and Cassia Fistula

Publication:

Medical.wesrch.com

Abstract:

Ethanolic extracts of pods of Moringa Oleifera and Cassia fistula were taken for antioxidant activity and free readical scavenging activity. The pods of Moringa Oleifera and Cassia fistula exhibited significant reducing power  and free radical scavenging effect on TAC, FRAP, FTC, TBA and MTT. All these antioxidant acativities were concentration dependent which were compared with standard antioxidants such as BHA, ascorbic acid, BHT and rutin. In addition, total phenolic content and flavonoids was determined as gallic acid and quercetin equivalents respectively. The highest free radical scavenging of pod extract was observed at concentration of 1mg/ml for Moringa Oleifera and for Cassia fistula.

URL:

http://medical.wesrch.com/docME1XXF1E2VDML

305.

Antidiarrhoeal Activity of Leaf Extract of Moringa Oleifera In Experimentally Induced Diarrhoea In Rats

Lakshminarayana M, Shivkumar H, Rimaben P, Bhargava VK

Abstract

To evalauate the antidiarrhoeal activity of the hydroalcoholic extract of moringa oleifera leaves. The hydroalchoholic extract was evaluated using rodent animal models of diarrhoea like the castor oil and magnesium sulfate induced gastrointestinal motility, in a model of enteropooling induced by the administration of castor oil and PGE2, Charcoal meal test. Acute toxicity and phytochemical constituents were also been evaluated using standardized methods.

The results of the present study indicates that the hydroalcoholic extract of moringa oleifera leaves was effective in inducing a significant protection against experimentally induced diarrhoea by castor oil and magnesium sulfate, as evidenced by a decrease in the number of frequency, weight of stools after 4 hours with respect to control. The extract also prevented the enteropooling induced by castor oil and PGE2 at all the doses tested. Acute toxicity studies indicated that the extract is safe till 2500 mg/kg. The antidiarrhoeal activity though, not ascribed to any particular phytochemical present, general tests performed indicated the presence of flavonoids, tannis which were reported to produce antidiarrhoeal activity.

These results showed that Moringa oleifera leaves possess anti-diarrheal properties mediated through inhibition of hyper secretion and gastrointestinal motility that substantiate its use in the treatment of diarrhea in traditional medicines or folklore use.

Keywords: enteropooling, hyper secretion, Moringa oleifera

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Phytomedicine. 2011 Jan 15;18(2-3):91-5. Epub 2010 Jul 16.

Moringa oleifera induced potentiation of serotonin release by 5-HT(3) receptors in experimental ulcer model.

Debnath S, Biswas D, Ray K, Guha D.

Source

S. N. Pradhan Centre for Neurosciences, University of Calcutta, 244B A.J.C. Bose Road, Kolkata 700020, India. siddhartha debnath78@rediffmail.com

Abstract

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE:

moringa oleifera (Moringaceae), a perennial plant is widely cultivated throughout the world. Extensive pharmacological studies revealed its promising role in modulation of various disorders like antispasmodic, diuretic, abortifacient, antimicrobial antibacterial, antitubercular, antiviral, antifertility, depressant, anti-inflammatory and anticancer property which promoted us to conduct the study to elucidate its role on experimental gastric ulceration.

AIM OF THE STUDY:

the aim of the present study was to assess the efficacy of its aqueous leaf extract on protection of gastric ulceration and characterize the possible modulatory mechanism underlying the phenomenon.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

adult Holtzman strain albino rats (weight 150-200 g) of either sex were used for the study. Ulceration was induced using aspirin (500 mg/kg body weight) and using Moringa oleifera (MO), a herbal formulation, the modulatory mechanism has been studied and compared with a commonly used antagonist of 5-HT(3) receptors, ondansetron by assessing parameters like mean ulcer index, 5-HT content, EC cell count and mucosal thickness.

RESULTS:

the results of our study suggest that MO protects ulcer formation by modulating 5-HT secretion through EC cell via 5-HT(3) receptors in gastrointestinal tract.

INTERPRETATION AND CONCLUSION:

MO showed maximum protective activity at a dose of 300 mg/kg body weight against above-mentioned experimental rat ulcer model by modulating 5-HT secretion through EC cell via 5-HT(3) receptors in gastrointestinal tract which has given a glimpse of a therapeutic approach for gastric ulcer management, which may be beneficially used in contrast to the classical antacid, antihistamine or surgical treatment. Further investigations and proper screening regarding various phytochemicals, alkaloids present within MO leaf will help to formulate effective herbal preparation that will be used to combat gastrointestinal disorders in future.

 

33 Responses to “Moringa Research”

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  3. Fernando Says:

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  4. hazem Says:

    I am Hazem – Egypt
    Our trees green Moringa price 4.1 $ per kg
    Securities dried ore $ 29 per kg
    Seeds Moringa $ 120 per kg
    Hazem Hamdi – the Nile Valley – Egypt
    amr_1930@yahoo.com
    thank you

  5. Moringa Resource blogs | MY miracle moringa medicine blog Says:

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